Mohammed and the Unbelievers
Cleaning Up the Details
I833 Mohammed sent out troops to the surrounding areas of Mecca to invite the Arabs to submit to Islam. Among those he sent was Khalid.
I834 When the members of the tribe of Jadhima saw Khalid and his troops, they grabbed their weapons. Khalid said, “Lay down your arms for everyone has accepted Islam.” But one of the Jadhima tribe called out, “Woe unto you, oh Jadhima. That is Khalid. If you lay down your arms, he will bind you and cut off your heads.” But his tribal brothers insisted that would not happen and laid down their weapons.
I834 As soon as they disarmed, Khalid had them bound and put them to the sword.
I837 One of the bound men asked one of Khalid’s men to lead him over to the women. He did so and the prisoner spoke a love poem to a woman. She went back with him as he was beheaded and wept and kissed him until they killed her as well.
I834 When this news reached Mohammed, he said, “O Allah, I am innocent before you of what Khalid has done.”
I835 Mohammed sent Ali with blood money to pay for the deaths. He gave each relative the blood money and still had money left over. Ali asked if any more com-pensation was due and they said no. So he gave them the balance of what he had. He returned to Mohammed and told him what he had done. Mohammed said he had done well, and then he turned to the Kabah and raised his arms so that the whiteness of his armpits showed and repeated three times, “O Allah, I am innocent before you of what Khalid did.”
KHALID’S DESTRUCTION OF THE NATIVE SHRINE
I840 Mohammed sent Khalid to an ancient temple near Mecca that was used by several tribes for worship. When Khalid got there he destroyed it completely.
THE BATTLE OF HUNAIN
I840 When Mohammed took Mecca, surrounding Arab tribes saw that he would be king of Arabia if he was not opposed. The Hawazin Arabs decided to oppose Mo-hammed under the leadership of Malik, who called for the advice of Durayd, a very old and experienced soldier. Durayd liked the location that Malik had chosen for the combat, but he wondered why he was hearing the sound of children and bleating sheep. Malik told him he was going to place the women, children, and livestock be-hind his men so they would not flee during battle. Durayd groaned and said, “You shepherd, do you think sheep will stop a man from running? If all goes well, nothing will help you except the sword and lance. If it goes badly, you will be disgraced with both family and property.”
I841 Durayd said the allies were too few and were not from tribes of great warriors. He also criticized the battle array and Malik’s strategy. But Malik was proud and re-fused the advice of an old man.
I842 Mohammed sent a spy to gather intelligence about the Arabs. When he got the information, he set about for jihad. He first borrowed armor and lances from a wealthy Meccan and then marched out with twelve thousand men.
B4,52,52 The Prophet said, “A single endeavor in Allah’s Cause in the after-noon and in the forenoon is better than the world and whatever is in it.”
I845 When Mohammed’s army descended into an area broad enough for combat they found the enemy prepared and waiting to attack.
M5,2309 We conquered Mecca, and then we went on an expedition to Hu-nain. The polytheists came, forming themselves into the best rows that I have seen. They first formed the rows of cavalry, then those of infantry, and then those of women behind them. Then there were formed the rows of sheep and goats and then of other animals. We were also people large in number, and our number had reached six thousand. And on one side Khalid Bin Walid was in charge of the cavalry. And our horses at once turned back from our rear. And we could hardly hold our own when our horses were exposed, and the Bedouins and the people whom we knew took to their heels.
I845 The Muslim troops broke and ran. Mohammed stood in his stirrups and called out, “Where are you going? Come to me, the Apostle of Allah.” Most of the men continued to retreat except his battle-hardened core troops who regrouped around him. About a hundred men led the charge to turn the tide. They were steadfast. Mo-hammed looked at the carnage and said, “Now the oven is hot!”
M19,4385 I [Abbas] was in the company of the Messenger of Allah on the Day of Hunain. I and Abu Sufyan stuck to the Messenger of Allah, and we did not separate from him. And the Messenger of Allah was riding on his white mule.
When the Muslims had an encounter with the disbelievers, the Muslims fled, falling back, but the Messenger of Allah began to spur his mule toward the disbelievers. I was holding the bridle of the mule of the Messenger of Al-lah, checking it from going very fast, and Abu Sufyan was holding the stirrup of the mule of the Messenger of Allah, who said, “Abbas, call out to the peo-ple of Al-Samura.”
I called out at the top of my voice: “Where are the people of Samura?” And by God, when they heard my voice, they came back to us as cows come back to their calves and said, “We are present, we are present!” They began to fight the infidels.
Then there was a call to the Ansar. Those who called out to them shouted, “O Ansar [the Helpers]!”
And the Messenger of Allah who was riding on his mule looked at their fight with his neck stretched forward and he said, “This is the time when the fight is raging hot.” Then the Messenger of Allah took some pebbles and threw them in the face of the infidels. Then he said, “By the Lord of Mohammed, the infidels are defeated.”
I went round and saw that the battle was in the same condition in which I had seen it. By Allah, it remained in the same condition until he threw the pebbles. I continued to watch until I found that their force had been spent out and they began to retreat.
I847 One of the Muslim women was near Mohammed and said about those who were retreating, “Kill those who flee just as you kill those who are attacking us.”
I848 Two men were fighting, and a Muslim went over to help. In one sword stroke he cut off the hand of the nonbeliever, who then grabbed the Muslim by the throat and nearly killed him by strangulation. One more sword stroke finished him off. Af-ter the battle he went back and found that the man he had killed had already been stripped of his armor and weapons. No spoils of war. So he went to Mohammed and complained of his loss. Another Muslim admitted that he had taken the wealth of the man and that the man who killed him should be paid with his share of the distributed wealth. Abu Bakr, Mohammed’s first in command, said, “No, by Allah, he shall not be paid from the general distribution. Are you going to make one of the lions of Allah who fought for Islam ask for shares? No, return the spoils to the one who killed him!” Mohammed confirmed this judgment, and the fighter took the spoils of war and sold it and bought his first real estate, a small palm-grove. But that was a small yield; one Muslim took the spoils of twenty men.
B4,53,370 During the Battle of Hunain, I [Abu Qatada] was in the company of Mohammed. After the battle was joined, the Muslim army had begun to retreat when I saw a kafir attacking a Muslim. I attacked him from behind and dealt him a mortal blow, though he almost killed me before he expired.
Following Umar, I asked him: “Why are the people fleeing?”
“It is the will of Allah,” he said.
When the soldiers returned, Mohammed said, “Anyone who can prove that he killed an enemy soldier may have the dead man’s possessions.”
I rose and asked: “Who will be my witness?”
Mohammed repeated, “Anyone who can prove that he killed an enemy soldier may have the dead man’s possessions.”
I stood up again and asked: “Who will be my witness?”
Mohammed announced for a third time his call for claims and for the third time I asked for a witness.
Mohammed asked me, “Abu Qatada, what do you have to say?”
After I told him the whole story, a man got up and said, “Mohammed, he is telling the truth. I have the dead man’s possessions. Please compensate the man for me.”
Abu Bakr spoke up, “No, by Allah, Mohammed will not give you the spoils of war won by a warrior that fights on behalf of Allah and Moham-med.”
Mohammed said, “Abu Bakr is correct.”
So, Mohammed gave me the man’s armor, which I sold. I bought a gar-den with the money I received for the armor. It was the first property I ac-quired after my conversion to Islam.
I856 One of those captured was a woman, and they handled her roughly. She told them she was Mohammed’s foster sister. They brought her in front of Mohammed and he asked for proof. She reminded him of a bite he had given her when she carried him. He remembered this and treated her well. She decided to return to her tribe and not become a Muslim. Mohammed gave her two slaves, one male and one female.
M19,4453 On the Day of Hunain, Umm Sulaim took out a dagger she had in her possession. Abiu Talha saw her and said, “Messenger of Allah, this is Umm Sulaim. She is holding a dagger.”
The Messenger of Allah asked her, “Why are you holding this
She said, “I took it up so that I may tear open the belly of a polytheist who comes near me.”
The Messenger of Allah began to smile at these words.
She said, “Messenger of Allah, kill all those people—other than us—whom you have declared to be free on the day of the Conquest of Mecca. They embraced Islam because they were defeated at your hands and as such their Islam is not dependable.”
The Messenger of Allah said, “Umm Sulaim, God is sufficient against the mischief of the polytheists and He will be kind to us so you need not carry this dagger.”
I859 A poem of the battle:
Crushing the heads of the nonbelievers
Now choking them with bare hands
Now splitting their skulls with a sharp sword
Obedience to Allah and Mohammed.
We conquered with his flag and commission
A glorious life and authority that will not cease.
The day we trod down the kafirs
We did not turn from the Prophet’s orders.
In battle people only heard
The exhortations and smashing of skulls
By swords that severed the necks of warriors at a blow.
We left the slain cut to pieces.
‘Tis Allah we please, not man. —Bin Mirdas
THE CAPTURE OF AL TAIF
I870 When Mohammed had finished at Hunain, he set out for Al Taif.
I872 On the way, he passed a walled house. Mohammed called out that, if the man did not come out of his house, the Muslims would tear down his wall. He would not come out and the Muslims tore down his wall.
B4,52,72 Mohammed told us that Allah revealed to him that “any holy war-rior killed will go to Paradise.”
Umar asked the prophet, “Is it true that Muslims killed in battle will go to Paradise, and kafirs who are killed in battle will go to Hell?”
Mohammed said, “Yes.”
I872 They reached Al Taif and camped near its walls. Some Muslims were killed when arrows from the besieged city hit them, so they withdrew their camp. They fought for days just exchanging arrows with the city. Then the Muslims stormed the wall using a testudo (a roofed moveable structure) to avoid the arrows, but the de-fenders dropped hot iron on the roof of the testudo and set it ablaze. As the Muslims tried to escape, the defenders shot them; so Mohammed cut down their vineyards.
I874 Mohammed took stock of the situation. As he was doing so, one of the Muslim women came over and asked him if she could have the jewelry of one or two women of the tribe under siege. It so happened these women were well known for the fine-ness of their jewelry. Mohammed told her she might not get to wear the jewelry be-cause he’d had a foreboding dream. They broke camp.
I874 One of the Muslims was very irritated. He had come for the sole purpose of getting a slave girl. This particular Arab tribe was noted for its intelligence and the Muslim wanted her to breed smart sons for him.
I877 On the way back from the siege of Al Taif, Mohammed stopped where many of the prisoners and livestock of the Hunain battle were kept. The elders of the de-feated tribe reminded him that some of their tribe had been his foster kin. Moham-med asked them whether they wanted their livestock or their wives and children re-turned. Naturally, they said they wanted their families back.
I878 When the noon prayers were over, Mohammed asked if those who had the spoils of the Hunain battle would be willing to return the women and children. His oldest converts, the Helpers and the Immigrants, said yes. But those from a recently allied tribe said no. So Mohammed offered them six camels for each person if they would return them.
I878 From the lot of the women, Mohammed had chosen three as gifts of pleas-ure to his companions. He gave Ali one slave for sex and gave one each to Uthman and Umar too. So Mohammed gave slaves of pleasure to his two sons-in-law and father-in-law. Umar gave his sex slave to his son. It is not recorded if the women were returned to their mothers and fathers.
I878 One of the men had a female captive who was old, and he didn’t want to give her up for six camels. He said she was of high standing in the tribe and was worth more. Another Muslim told him, “Let her go! Her mouth is cold, her breasts are flat, and she cannot conceive. Not only that, her husband will not care. Give her up.” The man gave her up for the six camels, but later he still complained about it. He was told, “Shut up. It is not like you took her as a virgin or even a plump matron.”
I879 One man was a chief whom Mohammed wanted for his influence. Moham-med sent word that he would give him a hundred camels and return his family if he would submit to Islam. The man did so.
I880 After Mohammed had returned the families, the Muslim fighters pressed him hard for the division of the livestock as the spoils of war. As a matter of fact, they pressed him so hard they shoved him against a thorn tree that tore off his mantle. That angered him, but he gave them all they wanted.
I885 All the new Muslims were receiving the spoils of war, but the Helpers had re-ceived nothing and they were angry. So one went and complained and Mohammed had them all gather.
I886 Mohammed praised Allah and then said, “O Helpers, what is this I hear of you? Do you think ill of me in your hearts? Did I not come to you when you were in error? You were poor, and now Allah has made you rich. You had many enemies, and now your hearts are softened.” The Helpers replied, “Yes, you and Allah have been kind and generous.” Then Mohammed said, “Had you wished, you could have said that I came to you when I was discredited and you believed me. I was deserted and you helped me. I was poor and you comforted me. And all of this would have been true. Are you disturbed because I have given good things to others to influence them to be Muslims? Are you not satisfied that others will take livestock away and you will take back the Apostle of Allah? By Allah, if it were not for the Immigrants, I would have become a Helper myself. If all men went in one direction and the Helpers went the other, I would go with the Helpers. May Allah have mercy on the Helpers.”
I886 The men cried until tears ran off their beards. “We are satisfied with our share.” And they left feeling grateful.
M5,2303 When on the Day of Hunain Allah conferred upon His Apostle the riches of the Hawazin without armed encounter, the Messenger of Allah set about distributing to some persons of Quraysh one hundred camels.
Upon this the young people from the Ansar said, “May Allah grant par-don to the Messenger of Allah that he bestowed these camels upon the peo-ple of Quraysh, and he ignored us, whereas our swords are still dripping blood.”
Their statement was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah, and he sent someone to the Ansar and gathered them under a tent of leather. When they had assembled, the Messenger of Allah came to them and said, “What is this news that has reached me from you?”
The wise people of the Ansar said, “Messenger of Allah, so far as the sen-sible among us are concerned they have said nothing, but we have among us persons of immature age. They said, ‘May Allah grant pardon to the Messen-ger of Allah that he gave to the Quraysh and ignored us despite the fact that our swords are besmeared with their blood.’”
Upon this the Messenger of Allah said, “I give at times material gifts to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief, so that I may incline them to truth. Don’t you feel delighted that people should go with riches, and you should go back to your homes with the Apostle of Allah? By Allah, that with which you would return is better than that with which they would return.”
They said, “Yes, Messenger of Allah, we are pleased.”
The Holy Prophet said, “You would find marked preference in conferring of the material gifts in future, so you should show patience till you meet Al-lah and His Messenger in Paradise.”
They said, “We would show patience.”
THE AFFAIR OF THE POET
I888 A poet named Kab had satirized Mohammed. His brother wrote to him, saying Mohammed killed those who spoke against him. Those poets who could had escaped from Arabia. However, if Kab apologized and became a Muslim, all would be for-given. Otherwise, he should flee.
I889 Kab wanted to live and remain in Arabia. Other friends also told him he was a dead man if he didn’t leave or convert, so he wrote a poem praising Mohammed and repenting.
I889 Then Kab set out for Medina and went to the mosque and asked which man was Mohammed. Someone pointed him out. Kab went directly to him after prayers and asked, “If Kab, the poet, came to you as a repentant Muslim, would you accept him?” Mohammed said he would. Then Kab said he was that man. Immediately one of the Helpers leapt up and asked permission to behead Kab. Mohammed told the Helpers to leave the man alone, as he was now a Muslim. A Muslim should never kill
MARY, THE COPTIC SLAVE OF PLEASURE
M425 Mohammed was given two Coptic (Egyptian Christian) slaves. One he gave to another Muslim but he kept Mary, fair of skin with curly hair. He did not move her into the harem but set her up in an apartment in another part of Medina. Mary pro-vided something in sex that none of his wives could—a child, and it was a male child, Abraham. Mohammed doted on him.
M426 The harem was jealous. This non-Arab slave had given Mohammed his best gift. Then, while one of his wives, Hafsa, was away, Mohammed took Mary to her apartment in the harem. Hafsa returned and there was a scene. Mohammed tried to keep it quiet but the harem was incensed: a slave in one of their beds was an outrage and a scandal. The wives banded together, and it was a house of anger and coldness.
M427 Mohammed withdrew and swore he would not see his wives for a month and lived with Mary. Omar and Abu Bakr were appalled as Mohammed, their son-in-law, abandoned their daughters for a slave. Finally, Mohammed relented and said Gabriel had spoken well of Hafsa and he wanted the whole affair to be over.
66:1 Why, O, Messenger, do you forbid yourself that which Allah has made lawful to you? Do you seek to please your wives? [Mohammed told Hafsa he would stop rela-tions with Mary and then did not, but Hafsa was supposed to be quiet about the matter.] Allah is lenient and merciful. Allah has allowed you release from your oaths, and Allah is your master. He is knowing and wise.
66:3 When the Messenger confided a fact to one of his wives, and when she divulged it [Hafsa told Aisha (Mohammed’s favorite wife) about Mary and the harem became embroiled in jealousy], Allah informed Mohammed of this [Mohammed learned of the problem in his harem], and he told her [Hafsa] part of it and withheld part. When Mohammed told her of it, she said, “Who told you this?” He said, “He who is knowing and wise told me.”
66:4 “If you both [Hafsa and Aisha] turn in repentance to Allah, your hearts are al-ready inclined to this, but if you conspire against the Messenger, then know that Allah is his protector, and Gabriel, and every just man among the faithful, and the angels are his helpers besides. Perhaps, if he [Mohammed] divorced you all, Allah would give him better wives than you—Muslims, believers, submissive, devout, penitent, obedient, observant of fasting, widows, and virgins.”
Abraham died about a year later.
THE RAID ON TABUK
I894 Mohammed decided to raid the Byzantines. Normally, he never let his men actually know where he was headed. He would announce a general destination and, after they were on the way, announce the actual place. But this raid was far away and the weather was very hot, so more complicated preparations needed to be made. The men began to prepare but with no enthusiasm due to the heat. Besides, it was time for harvest to begin, and they remembered the last combat with the Byzantines—they lost badly.
B4,52,198 When Mohammed planned an attack, he would use deceit to conceal his objective, the exception being the Battle of Tabuk, which was fought during extremely hot weather. Facing a long trek through the desert before attacking a formidable host, Mohammed told his army their destina-tion and made clear their difficult situation.
I894 When Mohammed asked one of his best men if he wanted to go, the man re-plied, “Would you allow me to stay? You know how much I love women and, when I see the Byzantine women, I don’t know if I will be able to control myself.” So Mo-hammed told him to stay, but the Koran had a comment:
9:49 Some of them say to you, “Allow me to remain at home, and do not expose me to temptation.” Have they not already fallen into temptation? Hell will surround the kafirs.
I895 There was much grumbling about the heat.
9:81 Those who were left behind were delighted at sitting behind Allah’s Messenger. They hated to strive and fight with their riches and their lives for Allah’s cause [ji-had] and said, “Do not go out in the heat.” Say: The Fire of Hell is a fiercer heat. If they would only understand. Let them laugh a little for they will weep much in payment for their deeds.
I896 Mohammed urged those who could to finance the jihad. Those with wealth did so. There were seven poor fighters who came to Mohammed and begged to go, but they had no mounts. Mohammed said he had no mounts and they left crying, but a Muslim gave them an old camel suitable only for carrying water and dates, and they went off with Mohammed.
I896 When Mohammed set off, there were many Muslims who were slow to leave or who came with misgivings. After the first camp, some of them returned to Medina. These were called hypocrites.
9:47 If they had intended to go to war, they would have prepared for war. But Allah was opposed to their marching forth and held them back. It was said, “Sit at home with those who sit.” If they had taken the field with you, they would not have added to your strength but would have
hurried about among you, stirring up dissension. Some of you would have listened to them. Allah knows the evildoers.
I897 Mohammed left his son-in-law, Ali, behind to take care of Mohammed’s fam-ily. After Mohammed was on the trail, some of the Medinans told Ali that Moham-med did not want to take him along because he was a burden and Mohammed didn’t want him around. This angered Ali, so he grabbed his weapons, saddled his camel, and set out to catch Mohammed. When he caught up, Mohammed told him to go back. He said those men were liars, and he needed Ali to care for his family. Ali went back.
I901 As the journey went on, some men dropped out. Mohammed said of them, “Let them be. If there is any good in them, they will rejoin; if not, Allah has rid us of them.”
I902 When they got to Tabuk, the people there paid the poll tax. By paying the per person tax, they gained immunity and Mohammed would not attack and kill them or rob their caravans.
I903 Mohammed sent Khalid to the fort of a Christian ruler. When the ruler and his brother rode out of their fort to inspect their cattle, Khalid killed the brother and captured the ruler. The Christian’s robe was so beautiful that Khalid sent it to Mo-hammed. The Muslims admired it, but Mohammed said he preferred a rag from one of his martyrs. The ruler agreed to pay the poll tax to Islam, and Mohammed re-turned to Medina.
THE PUNISHMENT OF THE THREE
I908 When Mohammed returned to Medina there were many who had chosen not to go on jihad with him. Three drew his attention (the text is not clear exactly why), and he ordered them shunned. No one was to go to their houses or even speak to them. Many of those who stayed behind came to him and apologized, but Moham-med remained silent.
I909 In a small community, public shunning was socially crippling, and the three who were being punished were hurt. After forty days, even their wives were ordered to shun them.
B6,60,199 I heard Kab Bin Malik, who was one of the three who were for-given, saying that he had never remained behind Allah’s Apostle in any battle which he had fought except two—Tabuk and Badr. He added: I decided to tell the truth to Allah’s Apostle in the forenoon, and scarcely did he return from a journey he made,
except in the forenoon, he would go first to the mosque and offer a two-Rakat prayer. The Prophet forbade others to speak to me or to my two companions, but he did not prohibit speaking to any of those who had remained behind excepting us.
So the people avoided speaking to us, and I stayed in that state till I could no longer bear it, and the only thing that worried me was that I might die and the Prophet would not offer the funeral prayer for me, or Allah’s Apostle might die and I would be left in that social status among the people that no-body would speak to me or offer the funeral prayer for me. But Allah re-vealed His Forgiveness for us to the Prophet in the last third of the night while Allah’s Apostle was with Um Salama. Um Salama sympathized with me and helped me in my disaster.
Allah’s Apostle said, “O Um Salama! Kab has been forgiven!”
She said, “Shall I send someone to him to give him the good
He said, “If you did so, the people would not let you sleep the rest of the night.” So when the Prophet had offered the Fajr prayer, he announced Al-lah’s Forgiveness for us. His face used to look as bright as a piece of the full moon whenever he was pleased.
When Allah revealed His Forgiveness for us, we were the three whose case had been deferred while the excuse presented by those who had apologized had been accepted. But when there were mentioned those who had told the Prophet lies and remained behind in the Battle of Tabuk and had given false excuses, they were described with the worst description one may be de-scribed with.
Allah said: “They will present their excuses to you when you return to them. Say: Present no excuses; we shall not believe you. Allah has already informed us of the true state of matters concerning you. Allah and His Apos-tle will observe your actions.”
I913 On the fiftieth day of their shunning Mohammed announced that Allah had sent down forgiveness for the men who had slacked on their duty of jihad to Tabuk. So Mohammed did not chastise them; Allah did.
9:118 Allah also turned in mercy to the three who were left behind. Their guilt caused them to feel that the earth, spacious as it is, constrained them. Their souls became so confined within them that they thought there was no refuge from Allah but in Him. Then He turned to them, in mercy, so that they might repent. Allah is constant and merciful. Believers, fear Allah, and be with those who are truthful.
THAQIF SUBMITS TO ISLAM
I914 One of the men from Thaqif came to Mohammed to submit to Islam. When he went back to Thaqif, he announced his conversion from the top of his house. The men of Thaqif responded by shooting arrows at him and killing him. The natives of Thaqif were growing tired of the persecution and danger in not being a Muslim. As one said, “Our herds are not safe. We cannot go out without being cut off.” So they decided to submit to Islam and gain peace.
I916 They sent a large delegation to Mohammed, which tried to negotiate with Mo-hammed. They wanted to wait three years before destroying their native religious objects, but Mohammed would have none of that. Finally, the best deal to be made was that Mohammed would send someone to destroy all the native religious objects so the members of Thaqif would not have to do the work themselves, as they loved their old religion.
B,52,53 Mohammed said, “Nobody who died and went to Paradise would want to return to life even if he were given the world and all its possessions, the exception being the martyr that recognized the moral superiority of giv-ing one’s life for Allah and who wished to return to life only to give it again.”
Mohammed said, “A single act of jihad in the afternoon or morning is greater than the entire world and everything in it. A place in Paradise, no matter how small, is greater than the entire world and everything in it. If a houri [a virgin of Paradise devoted to perfect sexual satisfaction] came from Paradise and revealed herself to man, she would fill the sky between heaven and earth with bright light and sweet aromas. The veil she wears is greater than the entire earth and everything in it.”
M448 After all the victories some Muslims said the days of fighting were over and even began to sell their arms. Mohammed forbade this, saying, “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in fighting for the truth until the Anti-christ appears.” Jihad was therefore the normal state of affairs. Indeed, the Koran prepared the way for this:
9:122 The faithful should not all go out together to fight. If a part of every troop remained behind, they could instruct themselves in their religion and warn their people when they return to them that they should guard against evil.
ABU BAKR LEADS THE PILGRIMAGE
I919 Abu Bakr led the pilgrimage from Medina to Mecca. While they were in Mecca, major changes were made to the treaty of Hudaybiya, per the Koran. The treaty was only good for four more months.
9:1 A declaration of immunity from Allah and His Messenger to the kafirs with whom you have made a treaty: Travel freely in the land for four months, but know that you cannot escape Allah and that those who do not believe will be put to shame by Allah.
9:3 Allah and His Messenger proclaimed to the people on the day of the greater pil-grimage: “Allah and His Messenger are free from any obligations with the kafirs. If you repent to Allah, it will be better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape Allah.” Announce a painful punishment to those who do not be-lieve.
I920 After the four-month period, jihad would be declared upon those of the native religions unless they submitted to Islam.
9:5 When the sacred months [by ancient Arab custom there were four months dur-ing which there was to be no violence] are passed, kill the kafirs wherever you find them. Take them as captives, besiege them, and lie in wait for them with every kind of ambush. If they submit to Islam, observe prayer, and pay the poor tax, then let them go their way. Allah is gracious and merciful.
I922 After this date those who practiced the old native religions of Arabia would no longer be able to come to Mecca for pilgrimage.
9:17 It is not for the kafirs to visit or maintain temples of Allah while they witness against their own souls to disbelief. Their work bears no fruit; they will abide in the Fire forever. Only he who believes in Allah and the Last Day should visit the mosques of Allah, observe regular prayer, and practice regular charity, and fear only Allah.
Family, friends, wealth, businesses, and homes all had to be less important than Allah, Mohammed, and jihad.
9:24 Say: If your fathers, and your sons, and your brothers, and your wives, and your kin-folks, and the wealth which you have gained, and the merchandise that you fear you will not sell, and the dwellings in which you delight—if all are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger and efforts on His Path, then wait until Allah’s com-mand comes to pass. Allah does not guide the impious.
I924 The kafirs were unclean and could not approach the Kabah. The money lost from their pilgrimages would be taken care of by Allah.
9:28 O, believers, only the kafirs are unclean. Do not let them come near the Sacred Temple after this year of theirs. If you fear poverty from the loss of their business [breaking commercial ties with the Meccans], Allah will enrich you from His abun-dance if He pleases. Allah is knowing and wise.
I924 Jihad against the kafirs would result in a poll tax that would compensate for the lost pilgrimage incomes.
9:29 Make war on those who have received the Scriptures [Jews and Christians] but do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day. They do not forbid what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden. The Christians and Jews do not follow the religion of truth until they submit and pay the poll tax [jizya], and they are humiliated.
I924 The Koran then turned to the issue of the raid on the Byzantines at Tabuk. Muslims were required to answer the call to jihad. It was an obligation.
9:38 O, believers, what possessed you that when it was said, “March forth in Allah’s cause [jihad],” you clung heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the life of this world to the next? Little is the comfort of this life compared to the one that is to come. Unless you march forth, He will punish you with a grievous penalty, and He will put an-other in your place. You will not harm Him at all, for Allah has power over every-thing.
I924 If the Byzantine raid had been short and produced easy war spoils, the Mus-lims would have joined readily, but instead they made excuses.
9:42 Had there been a near advantage and a short journey, they would certainly have followed you, but the journey was too long for them. Yet they will swear by Allah saying, “If we only could have, we would surely have gone forth with you.” They would destroy their own souls. Allah knows that they are surely lying.
I924 A Muslim’s duty was not to avoid fighting, either personally or with money.
9:44 Those who believe in Allah and in the Last Day do not ask for exemption from fighting with their wealth and their lives. Allah knows those who fear Him.
I926 Those who tried to avoid jihad were hypocrites, and the prophet was to strug-gle against them. They were bound for Hell.
9:73 O, Prophet, strive hard against the kafirs and the hypocrites, and be firm with them. Hell will be their dwelling place: A wretched journey.
I927 In the past Mohammed had gone to the graves of some of the hypocrites and prayed, but a Muslim was not to pray for a kafir or stand at his grave.
9:84 Never pray over nor stand over the grave of anyone of them who dies because he did not believe in Allah and His Messenger and died in his wickedness.
Those who believed in Allah and the apostle and entered jihad with their wealth and lives would prosper and enter Paradise. This was a promise from Allah.
9:88 The Messenger and those who share his faith strive hard for their faith with their purses and lives. All good things await them. These are the ones who will pros-per. Allah has made ready for them Gardens beneath which the rivers flow, where they will remain forever. This is the supreme felicity.
9:111 Allah has bought from the believers their lives and their wealth, and in return theirs is the Garden of Paradise. They will fight on the path of Allah so they slay and are slain. It is a promise binding on Him in truth through the Law, in the Gospel, and in the Koran, and who is more faithful to His promise than Allah? Rejoice, therefore, in the pledge that you have made, for this will be the great bliss.
I932 Some poetry from this period:
Carrying horsemen accustomed to fighting warriors
And to smiting down brave foes
Never retreating, but always advancing
We came back with their leaders
And with their women and children also divided among the warriors
We inherited their houses when they were gone
And remained there as owners
When the Apostle brought us the truth.
I933 When Mohammed had taken Mecca and Tabuk, deputations began to come from other Arabs. They had been waiting to see how the conflict played out between the Quraysh and Mohammed. When Mohammed was victorious the Arabs came in groups and joined the winner.
110:1 When the help of Allah and the victory arrive, and you see men entering the religion of Allah in ranks, then celebrate the praises of your Lord and pray for His forgiveness, for He is always ready to show mercy.
Ishaq’s biography goes on for some pages about the different tribes who came to submit to Islam. One interesting story that portrays the motives of some who joined is that of a Christian chief.
ADIY, THE CHRISTIAN
I947 No man disliked Mohammed more than Adiy. Seeing Mohammed rise in po-litical power, he made plans to evacuate when Mohammed came with his warriors. Sure enough, the word came that Mohammed was near, and Adiy took his family and left for Syria. In his rush he left behind his niece. She was captured and then released to travel to find her Uncle Adiy. She advised him to join Mohammed, saying, “If he is a prophet, those who join early will have an advantage, and if he is a king you will not be shamed.” So he went to see Mohammed.
I949 When Adiy met Mohammed he was impressed by him although he did not act like a king. Mohammed said, “The poverty of the Muslims might cause you to not want to join Islam, but, by Allah, there will soon be such a flood of wealth that people will not be able to handle it. You think that others have the power, but soon the cas-tles of Babylon will be open to Islam.” So Adiy became a Muslim.
THE KINGS OF HIMYAR
I956 The kings of Himyar wrote to Mohammed that they had submitted to Islam. Mohammed wrote back, “I received your message and am informed of your conver-sion to Islam and your killing kafirs. Allah has guided you. Send one fifth of the spoils of war, and tax the non-
believers. Christians and Jews who do not convert must pay the poll tax.”
THE BANU’L-HARITH ACCEPT ISLAM
I959 Mohammed sent Khalid to the people of Banu’l-Harith to give the tribe three days to accept Islam before he attacked it. So Khalid sent out riders to announce: “If you accept Islam you will be safe.” The tribe accepted and Khalid taught everyone Islam.
I960 When the tribe members came to visit Mohammed, he said they were the men who, when driven away, pushed forward. Then he said, “If Khalid had not written that you accepted Islam, I would have thrown your heads beneath your feet.”
I961 Mohammed then sent them back home with detailed religious instructions as well as the directive to send him one fifth of the spoils of war that were due him.
B1,10,501 Leaders from an Arab tribe came to Mohammed and said, “Our tribe is separated from you by distance and enemies, and we can only visit during the sacred months. Give us commandments so that we may bring them to our people.“
Mohammed said, “I command you to do four things, and I forbid you to do one. The things you must do are admit that there is but one god, Allah and Mohammed is His prophet; strictly follow rules governing prayer; pay taxes to support the needy; and, finally, give me one fifth of all spoils of war. The thing that you must not do is drink alcohol.”
THE POOR TAX
I965 Mohammed sent out tax collectors to every part of Islam to collect the poor tax, the zakat.