The 149 Sword Verses of the Koran

The 149 Sword Verses of the Qur’an Put in Context Using Tafsir Ibn Kathir

By David Bukay

(1) 2:178-O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.

O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman.

Therefore, do not transgress the set limits, as others before you transgressed them, and thus changed what Allah has ordained for them. The reason behind this statement is that (the Jewish tribe of) Banu An-Nadir invaded Qurayzah (another Jewish tribe) during the time of Jahiliyyah (before Islam) and defeated them. Hence, (they made it a law that) when a person from Nadir kills a person from Quraizah, he is not killed in retaliation, but only pays a hundred Wasq of dates. However, when a person from Quraizah kills a Nadir man, he would be killed for him. If Nadir wanted (to forfeit the execution of the murderer and instead require him) to pay a ransom, the Quraizah man pays two hundred Wasq of dates double the amount Nadir pays in Diyah (blood money). So Allah commanded that justice be observed regarding the penal code, and that the path of the misguided and mischievous persons be avoided, who in disbelief and transgression, defy and alter what Allah has commanded them.

Al-Qisas (the Law of equality in punishment) is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female.)

(the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female.) was abrogated by the statement life for life (5:45). However, the majority of scholars agree that the Muslim is not killed for a disbeliever whom he kills. Al- Bukhari reported that `Ali narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(The Muslim is not killed for the disbeliever (whom he kills).)

No opinion that opposes this ruling could stand correct, nor is there an authentic Hadith to contradict it. However, Abu Hanifah thought that the Muslim could be killed for a disbeliever, following the general meaning of the Ayah (5:45) in Surat Al-Ma’idah (chapter 5 in the Qur’an).

The Four Imams (Abu Hanifah, Malik, Shafi`i and Ahmad) and the majority of scholars stated that the group is killed for one person whom they murder. `Umar said, about a boy who was killed by seven men, “If all the residents of San`a’ (capital of Yemen today) collaborated on killing him, I would kill them all.” No opposing opinion was known by the Companions during that time which constitutes a near Ijma` (consensus). There is an opinion attributed to Imam Ahmad that a group of people is not killed for one person whom they kill, and that only one person is killed for one person. Ibn Al-Mundhir also attributed this opinion to Mu`adh, Ibn Az-Zubayr, `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan, Az-Zuhri, Ibn Sirin and Habib bin Abu Thabit.

But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude,

refers to accepting blood money (by the relatives of the victim in return for pardoning the killer) in cases of intentional murder. This opinion is attributed to Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Sha`tha’, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata’ Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan. Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said:

But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives) of the killed (against blood money)) means the killer is pardoned by his brother (i.e., the relative of the victim) and accepting the Diyah after capital punishment becomes due (against the killer), this is the `Afw (pardon mentioned in the Ayah).”

then grant any reasonable demand,

means, when the relative agrees to take the blood money, he should collect his rightful dues with kindness.

and compensate him with handsome gratitude,

means, the killer should accept the terms of settlement without causing further harm or resisting the payment.

this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord.

means the legislation that allows you to accept the blood money for intentional murder is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. It lightens what was required from those who were before you, either applying capital punishment or forgiving.

Sa`id bin Mansur reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “The Children of Israel were required to apply the Law of equality in murder cases and were not allowed to offer pardons (in return for blood money). Allah said to this Ummah (the Muslim nation):

(The Law of equality in punishment is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the servant for the servant, and the female for the female. But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives) of the killed (against blood money),)

Hence, `pardoning’ or `forgiving’ means accepting blood money in intentional murder cases.” Ibn Hibban also recorded this in his Sahih. Qatadah said:

(This is an alleviation from your Lord)

Allah had mercy on this Ummah by giving them the Diyah which was not allowed for any nation before it. The People of the Torah (Jews) were allowed to either apply the penal code (for murder, i.e., execution) or to pardon the killer, but they were not allowed to take blood money. The People of the Injil (the Gospel – the Christians) were required to pardon (the killer, but no Diyah was legislated). This Ummah (Muslims) is allowed to apply the penal code (execution) or to pardon and accept the blood money.” Similar was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas.

After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.

means, those who kill in retaliation after taking the Diyah or accepting it, they will suffer a painful and severe torment from Allah. The same was reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ata’ `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

2) 2:179-In the Law of Equality there is (saving of) Life to you, o ye men of understanding; that ye may restrain yourselves.

In the Law of Equality there is (saving of) Life to you,

(And there is life for you in Al-Qisas) legislating the Law of equality, i.e., killing the murderer, carries great benefits for you. This way, the sanctity of life will be preserved because the killer will refrain from killing, as he will be certain that if he kills, he would be killed. Hence life will be preserved. In previous Books, there is a statement that killing stops further killing! This meaning came in much clearer and eloquent terms in the Qur’an:

(And there is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisas (the Law of equality in punishment).)

Abu Al-`Aliyah said, “Allah made the Law of equality a `life’. Hence, how many a man who thought about killing, but this Law prevented him from killing for fear that he will be killed in turn.” Similar statements were reported from Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

o ye men of understanding; that ye may restrain yourselves.

means, `O you who have sound minds, comprehension and understanding! Perhaps by this you will be compelled to refrain from transgressing the prohibitions of Allah and what He considers sinful. ‘ Taqwa (mentioned in the Ayah) is a word that means doing all acts of obedience and refraining from all prohibitions.

3) 2:190-Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors.

Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi said that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that Abu Al-`Aliyah commented on what Allah said:

Fight in the cause of God those who fight you,

Abu Al-`Aliyah said, “This was the first Ayah about fighting that was revealed in Al-Madinah. Ever since it was revealed, Allah’s Messenger used to fight only those who fought him and avoid non-combatants. Later, Surat Bara’ah (chapter 9 in the Qur’an) was revealed.” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said similarly, then he said that this was later abrogated by the Ayah:

(then kill them wherever you find them) (9:5).

However, this statement is not plausible, because Allah’s statement:

those who fight you,

applies only to fighting the enemies who are engaged in fighting Islam and its people. So the Ayah means, `Fight those who fight you’, just as Allah said (in another Ayah):

(…and fight against the Mushrikin collectively as they fight against you collectively.) (9:36)

This is why Allah said later in the Ayah:

(And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out.) (2:191)meaning, `Your energy should be spent on fighting them, just as their energy is spent on fighting you, and on expelling them from the areas from which they have expelled you, as a law of equality in punishment.’

but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors.

This Ayah means, `Fight for the sake of Allah and do not be transgressors,’ such as, by committing prohibitions. Al-Hasan Al-Basri stated that transgression (indicated by the Ayah), “includes mutilating the dead, theft (from the captured goods), killing women, children and old people who do not participate in warfare, killing priests and residents of houses of worship, burning down trees and killing animals without real benefit.” This is also the opinion of Ibn `Abbas, `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others. Muslim recorded in his Sahih that Buraydah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Fight for the sake of Allah and fight those who disbelieve in Allah. Fight, but do not steal (from the captured goods), commit treachery, mutilate (the dead), or kill a child, or those who reside in houses of worship.)

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Ibn `Umar said, “A woman was found dead during one of the Prophet’s battles and the Prophet then forbade killing women and children. ” There are many other Hadiths on this subject.

4) 2:191-And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.

And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out;

meaning, `Your energy should be spent on fighting them, just as their energy is spent on fighting you, and on expelling them from the areas from which they have expelled you, as a law of equality in punishment.’

for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter;

Since Jihad involves killing and shedding the blood of men, Allah indicated that these men are committing disbelief in Allah, associating with Him (in the worship) and hindering from His path, and this is a much greater evil and more disastrous than killing. Abu Malik commented about what Allah said:

(And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.) Meaning what you (disbelievers) are committing is much worse than killing.” Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that what Allah said:

(And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.) “Shirk (polytheism) is worse than killing.”

but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque,

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that the Prophet said:

(Allah has made this city a sanctuary since the day He created the heavens and the earth. So, it is a sanctuary by Allah’s decree till the Day of Resurrection. Fighting in it was made legal for me only for an hour in the daytime. So, it (i.e., Makkah) is a sanctuary, by Allah’s decree, from now on until the Day of Resurrection. Its trees should not be cut, and its grass should not be uprooted. If anyone mentions the fighting in it that occurred by Allah’s Messenger, then say that Allah allowed His Messenger, but did not allow you.)

In this Hadith, Allah’s Messenger mentions fighting the people of Makkah when he conquered it by force, leading to some deaths among the polytheists in the area of the Khandamah. This occurred after the Prophet proclaimed:

(Whoever closed his door is safe. Whoever entered the (Sacred) Mosque is safe. Whoever entered the house of Abu Sufyan is also safe.)

unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.

Allah states: `Do not fight them in the area of the Sacred Mosque unless they start fighting you in it. In this case, you are allowed to fight them and kill them to stop their aggression.’ Hence, Allah’s Messenger took the pledge from his Companions under the tree (in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah) to fight (the polytheists), after the tribes of Quraysh and their allies, Thaqif and other groups, collaborated against the Muslims (to stop them from entering Makkah to visit the Sacred House). Then, Allah stopped the fighting before it started between them and said:

(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them.) (48:24) and:

(Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily, would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment.) (48:25).

5) 2:193-And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression.

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression,

(…until there is no more Fitnah) meaning, Shirk. This is the opinion of Ibn `Abbas, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi`, Muqatil bin Hayyan, As-Suddi and Zayd bin Aslam.

and there prevail justice and faith in God;

means, `So that the religion of Allah becomes dominant above all other religions.’ It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari said: “The Prophet was asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! A man fights out of bravery, and another fights to show off, which of them fights in the cause of Allah’ The Prophet said:

(He who fights so that Allah’s Word is superior, then he fights in Allah’s cause.) In addition, it is reported in the Two Sahihs:

(I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight the people until they proclaim, `None has the right to be worshipped but Allah’. Whoever said it, then he will save his life and property from me, except for cases of the law, and their account will be with Allah.)

but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression.

indicates that, `If they stop their Shirk and fighting the believers, then cease warfare against them. Whoever fights them afterwards will be committing an injustice. Verily aggression can only be started against the unjust.’ This is the meaning of Mujahid’s statement that only combatants should be fought. Or, the meaning of the Ayah indicates that, `If they abandon their injustice, which is Shirk in this case, then do not start aggression against them afterwards.’ The aggression here means retaliating and fighting them, just as Allah said:

(Then whoever transgresses against you, you transgress likewise against him.) (2:194)

Similarly, Allah said:

(The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof.) (42:40), and:

(And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. ) (16:126)

`Ikrimah and Qatadah stated, “The unjust person is he who refuses to proclaim, `There is no God worthy of worship except Allah’.”

Under Allah’s statement:

(And fight them until there is no more Fitnah) Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi` said that two men came to Ibn `Umar during the conflict of Ibn Az-Zubayr and said to him, “The people have fallen into shortcomings and you are the son of `Umar and the Prophet’s Companion. Hence, what prevents you from going out” He said, “What prevents me is that Allah has for bidden shedding the blood of my (Muslim) brother.” They said, “Did not Allah say:

(And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah))” He said, “We did fight until there was no more Fitnah and the religion became for Allah Alone. You want to fight until there is Fitnah and the religion becomes for other than Allah!”

`Uthman bin Salih added that a man came to Ibn `Umar and asked him, “O Abu `Abdur-Rahman! What made you perform Hajj one year and `Umrah another year and abandon Jihad in the cause of Allah, although you know how much He has encouraged performing it” He said, “O my nephew! Islam is built on five (pillars): believing in Allah and His Messenger, the five daily prayers, fasting Ramadan, paying the Zakah and performing Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House.” They said, “O Abu `Abdur-Rahman! Did you not hear what Allah said in His Book:

(And if two parties (or groups) among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah.) (49:9) and:

(And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief))

He said, “That we did during the time of Allah’s Messenger when Islam was still weak and (the Muslim) man used to face trials in his religion, such as killing or torture. When Islam became stronger (and apparent), there was no more Fitnah.” He asked, “What do you say about `Ali and `Uthman” He said, “As for `Uthman, Allah has forgiven him. However, you hated the fact that Allah had forgiven him! As for `Ali, he is the cousin of Allah’s Messenger and his son-in-law.” He then pointed with his hand, saying, “This is where his house is located (meaning, `so close to the Prophet’s house just as `Ali was so close to the Prophet himself’).”

6) 2:194-The prohibited month for the prohibited month, – and so for all things prohibited, – there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But fear God, and know that God is with those who restrain themselves.

Ibn `Abbas, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Miqsam, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and `Ata said, “Allah’s Messenger went for `Umrah on the sixth year of Hijrah. Then, the idolators prevented him from entering the Sacred House (the Ka`bah in Makkah) along with the Muslims who came with him. This incident occurred during the sacred month of Dhul-Qa`dah. The idolators agreed to allow them to enter the House the next year. Hence, the Prophet entered the House the following year, along with the Muslims who accompanied him, and Allah permitted him to avenge the idolators’ treatment of him, when He said:

The prohibited month for the prohibited month, – and so for all things prohibited, – there is the law of equality.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “Allah’s Messenger would not engage in warfare during the Sacred Month unless he was first attacked, then he would march forth. He would otherwise remain idle until the end of the Sacred Months.” This Hadith has an authentic chain of narrators.

Hence, when the Prophet was told that `Uthman was killed (in Makkah) when he was camped at the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, after he had sent `Uthman as his emissary to the polytheists, he accepted the pledge from his Companions under the tree to fight the polytheists. They were one thousand and four hundred then. When the Prophet was informed that `Uthman was not killed, he abandoned the fight and reverted to peace.’

When the Prophet finished fighting with (the tribes of) Hawazin during the battle of Hunayn and Hawazin took refuge in (the city of) At-Ta’if, he laid siege to that city. Then, the (sacred) month of Dhul-Qa`dah started, while At-Ta’if was still under siege. The siege went on for the rest of the forty days (rather, from the day the battle of Hunayn started until the Prophet went back to Al-Madinah from Al-Ji`ranah, were forty days), as reported in the Two Sahihs and narrated by Anas. When the Companions suffered mounting casualties (during the siege), the Prophet ended the siege before conquering At-Ta’if. He then went back to Makkah, performed `Umrah from Al-Ji`ranah, where he divided the war booty of Hunayn. This `Umrah occurred during Dhul-Qa`dah of the eighth year of Al-Hijrah.

If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him.

ordains justice even with the polytheists. Allah also said in another Ayah:

(And if you punish, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted.) (16:126).

But fear God, and know that God is with those who restrain themselves.

commands that Allah be obeyed and feared out of Taqwa. The Ayah informs us that Allah is with those who have Taqwa by His aid and support in this life and the Hereafter.

7) 2:216-Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But God knoweth, and ye know not.

In this Ayah, Allah made it obligatory for the Muslims to fight in Jihad against the evil of the enemy who transgress against Islam. Az-Zuhri said, “Jihad is required from every person, whether he actually joins the fighting or remains behind. Whoever remains behind is required to give support, if support is warranted; to provide aid, if aid is needed; and to march forth, if he is commanded to do so. If he is not needed, then he remains behind.” It is reported in the Sahih:

(Whoever dies but neither fought (i.e., in Allah’s cause), nor sincerely considered fighting, will die a death of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era of ignorance).)

On the day of Al-Fath (when he conquered Makkah), the Prophet said:

(There is no Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Al-Madinah) after the victory, but only Jihad and good intention. If you were required to march forth, then march forth.)

and ye dislike it.

means, `Fighting is difficult and heavy on your hearts.’ Indeed, fighting is as the Ayah describes it, as it includes being killed, wounded, striving against the enemies and enduring the hardship of travel.

But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you,

meaning, fighting is followed by victory, dominance over the enemy, taking over their lands, money and offspring.

and that ye love a thing which is bad for you.

This Ayah is general in meaning. Hence, one might covet something, yet in reality it is not good or beneficial for him, such as refraining from joining the Jihad, for it might lead to the enemy taking over the land and the government.

But God knoweth, and ye know not.

meaning, He has better knowledge than you of how things will turn out to be in the end, and of what benefits you in this earthly life and the Hereafter. Hence, obey Him and adhere to His commands, so that you may acquire the true guidance.

8) 2:217-They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave (offence) but graver is it in the sight of God to prevent access to the path of God, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members.” Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein.

Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Jundub bin `Abdullah said: Allah’s Messenger assembled a group of men under the command of Abu `Ubaydah bin Jarrah. When he was about to march, he started crying for the thought of missing Allah’s Messenger . Consequently, the Messenger relieved Abu `Ubaydah from command, appointed `Abdullah bin Jahsh instead, gave him some written instructions and commanded him not to read the instructions until he reached such and such area. He also said to `Abdullah:

(Do not compel any of your men to continue marching with you thereafter.)

They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave (offence)

Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, who compiled the Sirah (life story of the Prophet ), related that Ziyad bin `Abdullah Bakka’i said that Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar Al-Madani wrote in his book on the Sirah, “Allah’s Messenger sent `Abdullah bin Jahsh bin Riyab Al-Asadi in Rajab, after he (the Prophet ) came back from the first battle of Badr. The Prophet sent eight people with him, all from among the Muhajirun and none from the Ansar. He also gave him some written instructions and ordered him not to read them until he marched for two days. `Abdullah should then read the instructions and march to implement them, but should not force any of those who were with him to accompany him.

The companions of `Abdullah bin Jahsh were all from the Muhajirun, from the tribe of Banu `Abd Shams bin `Abd Manaf, there was Abu Hudhayfah bin `Utbah bin Rabi`ah bin `Abd Shams bin `Abd Manaf. From their allies, there was `Abdullah bin Jahsh, who was the commander of the army unit, and `Ukkashah bin Mihsan from the tribe of Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah. From the tribe of Banu Nawfal bin `Abd Manaf, there was `Utbah bin Ghazwan bin Jabir, one of their allies. From the tribe of Banu Zuhrah bin Kilab, there was Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas. From Banu Ka`b, there were their allies: `Adi bin `Amr bin Ar-Rabi`ah not from the tribe of Ibn Wa’il; Waqid bin `Abdullah bin `Abd Manaf bin `Arin bin Tha`labah bin Yarbu` from Banu Tamim; and Khalid bin Bukair from the tribe of Banu Sa`d bin Layth, Suhayl bin Bayda’ from Banu Al-Harith bin Fihr was also among them. When `Abdullah bin Jahsh marched for two days, he opened and read the (Prophet’s) instructions, “When you read these instructions, march until you set camp at Nakhlah between Makkah and At-Ta’if. There, watch the movements of the caravan of Quraysh and collect news about them for us.” When `Abdullah bin Jahsh read the document, he said, “I hear and obey.” He then said to his companions, “Allah’s Messenger has commanded me to march forth to Nakhlah to watch the movements of the caravan of Quraysh and to inform him about their news. He has prohibited me from forcing any of you (to go with me). So, those who seek martyrdom, they should march with me. Those who dislike the idea of martyrdom, let them turn back. Surely, I will implement the command of Allah’s Messenger .” He and his companions continued without any of them turning back.

`Abdullah entered the Hijaz area (western Arabia) until he reached an area called Buhran, close to Furu`. There, Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas and `Utbah bin Ghazwan lost the camel that they were riding in turns, and they went back to search for it while `Abdullah bin Jahsh and the rest of his companions continued until they reached Nakhlah. Then, a caravan belonging to the Quraysh passed by carrying raisins, food stuff and some trade items for the Quraysh. `Amr bin Hadrami, whose name was `Abdullah bin `Abbad, was in the caravan, as well as `Uthman bin `Abdullah bin Al-Mughirah and his brother Nawfal bin `Abdullah from the tribe of Makhzum, and Al-Hakam bin Kaysan, a freed slave of Hisham bin Al-Mughirah. When they saw the Companions they were frightened, but when they saw `Ukkashah bin Mihsan their fears subsided, since his head was shaved. They said, “These people seek the `Umrah, so there is no need to fear them.”

The Companions conferred among themselves. That day was the last day in the (sacred) month of Rajab. They said to each other, “By Allah! If you let them pass, they will soon enter the Sacred Area and take refuge in it from you. If you kill them, you will kill them during the Sacred Month.” They at first hesitated and did not like to attack them. They then began encouraging themselves and decided to kill whomever they could among the disbelievers and to confiscate whatever they had. Hence, Waqid bin `Abdullah At-Tamimi shot an arrow at `Amr bin Al-Hadrami and killed him. `Uthman bin `Abdullah and Al-Hakam bin Kaysan gave themselves up, while Nawfal bin `Abdullah was able to outrun them in flight. Later on, `Abdullah bin Jahsh and his companions went back to Allah’s Messenger in Al-Madinah with the caravan and the two prisoners. Ibn Ishaq went on: I was told that some members of the family of `Abdullah bin Jahsh said that `Abdullah said to his companions: “Allah’s Messenger will have one-fifth of what we have confiscated.” This occurred before Allah required one-fifth for His Messenger from the war booty. So, `Abdullah designated one-fifth of the caravan for Allah’s Messenger and divided the rest among his companions. Ibn Ishaq also stated that at first, when the Sariyah came back to Allah’s Messenge , he said to them:

(I have not commanded you to conduct warfare during the Sacred Month.)

He left the caravan and the two prisoners alone and did not take any share of the war booty.

When Allah’s Messenger did that, the soldiers from the attack were concerned and felt that they were destroyed, and their Muslim brethren criticized them for what they did. The Quraysh said that Muhammad and his Companions violated the sanctity of the Sacred Month and shed blood, confiscated property and took prisoners during it. Those who refuted them among the Muslims who remained in Makkah replied that the Muslims had done that during the month of Sha`ban (which is not a sacred month). Meanwhile, the Jews were pleased about what happened to Allah’s Messenger. They said, ` Amr bin Hadrami was killed by Waqid bin `Abdullah: `Amr, means the war has started, Hadrami means the war has come, as for Waqid (bin `Abdullah): the war has raged (using some of the literal meanings of these names to support their fortune-telling!).” But, Allah made all that turn against them.

They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave (offence) but graver is it in the sight of God to prevent access to the path of God, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members.”

This Ayah means, `If you had killed during the Sacred Month, they (disbelievers of Quraysh) have hindered you from the path of Allah and disbelieved in it. They also prevented you from entering the Sacred Mosque, and expelled you from it, while you are its people,

but graver is it in the sight of God

than killing whom you killed among them. Also:

Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter.

means, trying to force the Muslims to revert from their religion and re-embrace Kufr after they had believed, is worse with Allah than killing.’

Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can.

So, they will go on fighting you with unrelenting viciousness.

Ibn Ishaq went on: When the Qur’an touched this subject and Allah brought relief to the Muslims instead of the sadness that had befallen them, Allah’s Messenger took possession of the caravan and the two prisoners. The Quraysh offered to ransom the two prisoners, `Uthman bin `Abdullah and Hakam bin Kaysan. Allah’s Messenger said:

(We will not accept your ransom until our two companions return safely.) meaning Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas and `Utbah bin Ghazwan, “For we fear for their safety with you. If you kill them, we will kill your people.” Later on, Sa`d and `Utbah returned safely and Allah’s Messenger accepted the Quraysh’s ransom for their prisoners. As for Al-Hakam bin Kaysan, he became Muslim and his Islam strengthened. He remained with Allah’s Messenger until he was martyred during the incident at Bir Ma`unah (when the Prophet sent seventy Companions to Najd to teach them Islam, but Banu Sulaim killed them all except two). As for `Uthman bin `Abdullah, he went back to Makkah and died there as a disbeliever.

Ibn Ishaq went on: When `Abdullah bin Jahsh and his companions were relieved from their depressing thoughts after the Qur’an was revealed about this subject, they sought the reward of the fighters (in Allah’s way). They said, “O Messenger of Allah! We wish that this incident be considered a battle for us, so that we gain the rewards of the Mujahidin.”

9) 2:218-Those who believed and those who suffered exile and fought (and strove and struggled) in the path of God, – they have the hope of the Mercy of God: And God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

Hence, Allah has greatly elevated their hopes of gaining what they had wished for.

10) 2:244-Then fight in the cause of God, and know that God Heareth and knoweth all things.

This Ayah indicates that just as caution does not alter destiny, abandoning Jihad will neither bring the appointed term closer nor delay it. Rather, destiny and the appointed provisions are fixed and shall never be changed or altered, neither by addition nor deletion. Similarly, Allah said:

((They are) the ones who said about their killed brethren while they themselves sat (at home): “If only they had listened to us, they would not have been killed.” Say: “Avert death from your own selves, if you speak the truth.”) (3:168)

Allah said:

(They say: “Our Lord! Why have you ordained for us fighting Would that you had granted us respite for a short period” Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatila (a scalish thread in the long slit of a date stone). Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!”) (4:77, 78)

Abu Sulayman, Khalid bin Al-Walid, the commander of the Muslim armies, the veteran among Muslim soldiers, the protector of Islam and the Sword of Allah that was raised above His enemies, said while dying, “I have participated in so-and-so number of battles. There is not a part of my body, but suffered a shot (of an arrow), a stab (of a spear) or a strike (of a sword). Yet, here I am, I die on my bed just as the camel dies! May the eyes of the cowards never taste sleep.” He, may Allah be pleased with him, was sorry and in pain because he did not die as martyr in battle. He was sad that he had to die on his bed!

11) 3:121-Remember that morning Thou didst leave Thy household (early) to post the faithful at their stations for battle: And God heareth and knoweth all things:

12) 3:122-Remember two of your parties Meditated cowardice; but God was their protector, and in God should the faithful (Ever) put their trust.

13) 3:123-God had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear God; thus May ye show your gratitude.

According to the majority of scholars, these Ayat are describing the battle of Uhud, as Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others said. The battle of Uhud occurred on a Saturday, in the month of Shawwal on the third year of Hijrah. `Ikrimah said that Uhud occurred in the middle of the month of Shawwal, and Allah knows best.

The idolators suffered many casualties among their noble men at the battle of Badr. The caravan that Abu Sufyan led (before Badr) returned safely to Makkah, prompting the remaining Makkan leaders and the children of those who were killed at Badr to demand from Abu Sufyan to, “Spend this money on fighting Muhammad!” Consequently, they spent the money from the caravan on warfare expenses and mobilized their forces including the Ahabish tribes (tribes living around the city). They gathered three thousand soldiers and marched until they camped near Uhud facing Al-Madinah. The Messenger of Allah led the Friday prayer and when he finished with it, he performed the funeral prayer for a man from Bani An-Najjar called Malik bin `Amr. The Prophet then asked the Muslims for advice, if they should march to meet the disbelievers, or fortify themselves in Al-Madinah. `Abdullah bin Ubayy (the chief hypocrite) advised that they should remain in Al-Madinah, saying that if the disbelievers lay siege to Al-Madinah, the siege would be greatly disadvantageous to them. He added that if they decide to attack Al-Madinah, its men would face off with them, while women and children could throw rocks at them from above their heads; and if they decide to return to Makkah, they would return with failure. However, some companions who did not attend the battle of Badr advised that the Muslims should go out to Uhud to meet the disbelievers.

The Messenger of Allah went to his home, put on his shield and came out. The companions were weary then and said to each other, “Did we compel the Messenger of Allah to go out” They said, “O Messenger of Allah! If you wish, we will remain in Al-Madinah. ” The Messenger of Allah said,

(It is not for a Prophet to wear his shield for war then lay down his arms before Allah decides in his favor.)

The Messenger of Allah marched with a thousand of his Companions. When they reached the Shawt area, `Abdullah bin Ubayy went back to Al-Madinah with a third of the army, claiming he was angry the Prophet did not listen to his advice. He and his supporters said, “If we knew that you would fight today, we would have accompanied you. However, we do not think that you will fight today.” The Messenger of Allah marched until he reached the hillside in the area of Uhud, where they camped in the valley with Mount Uhud behind them. The Messenger of Allah said,

(No one starts fighting until I issue the command to fight.)

The Messenger prepared his forces for battle, and his army was seven hundred men. He appointed `Abdullah bin Jubayr, from Bani `Amr bin `Awf, to lead the archers who were fifty men. The Prophet said to them,

(Keep the horsemen away from us, and be aware that we might be attacked from your direction. If victory was for or against us, remain in your positions. And even if you see us being picked up by birds, do not abandon your positions.)

The Prophet wore two protective shields and gave the flag to Mus`ab bin `Umayr of Bani `Abd Ad-Dar. The Prophet also allowed some young men to participate in fighting, but not others, whom he allowed to participate in the battle of Al-Khandaq two years later. The Quraysh mobilized their forces of three thousand men with two hundred horsemen on each flank. They appointed Khalid bin Al-Walid to lead the right side of the horsemen and `Ikrimah Ibn Abi Jahl on the left side. They also gave their grand flag to the tribe of Bani `Abd Ad-Dar. Allah willing, we will mention the details of this battle later on, if Allah wills.

(3:121)Remember that morning Thou didst leave Thy household (early) to post the faithful at their stations for battle:

designating them to various positions, dividing the army to the left and right sides and placing them wherever you command them.

God heareth and knoweth all things:

He hears what you say and knows what you conceal in your hearts.

(3:122)Remember two of your parties Meditated cowardice;

Al-Bukhari recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “The Ayah,

(When two parties from among you were about to lose heart) was revealed about us, the two Muslim tribes of Bani Harithah and Bani Salamah. I (or we) would not be pleased if it was not revealed, because Allah said in it,

but God was their protector,

(but Allah was their Wali (Supporter and Protector)

Muslim recorded this Hadith from Sufyan bin `Uyaynah.

(3:123)God had helped you at Badr,

meaning, during the battle of Badr, which occurred on a Friday, the seventeenth of Ramadan, in the second year of Hijrah.

The day of Badr is known as Yawm Al-Furqan the Day of the Clarification, by which Allah gave victory and dominance to Islam and its people and disgraced and destroyed Shirk, even though the Muslims were few. The Muslims numbered three hundred and thirteen men, with two horses and seventy camels. The rest were foot soldiers without enough supplies for the battle. The enemy army consisted of nine hundred to a thousand men, having enough shields and supplies, battle-ready horses and even various adornments.

However, Allah gave victory to His Messenger , supported His revelation, and illuminated success on the faces of the Prophet and his following. Allah also brought disgrace to Shayatan and his army. This is why Allah reminded His believing servants,

God had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force;

This Ayah reminds them that victory is only from Allah, not because of a large army and adequate supplies. This is why Allah said in another Ayah,

(. .and on the day of Hunayn (battle) when you rejoiced at your great number, but it availed you naught) 9:25, until,)

(And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful) 9:27.

Badr is an area between Makkah and Al-Madinah and is known by the well that bears its name, which in turn was so named after Badr bin An-Narayn, the person who dug the well.

then fear God; thus May ye show your gratitude.

means, fulfill the obligations of His obedience.

14) 3:124-Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: “Is it not enough for you that God should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?

15) 3:125-“Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught.

16) 3:126-God made it but a message of hope for you, and an assurance to your hearts: (in any case) there is no help except from God. The Exalted, the Wise:

The scholars of Tafsir differ over whether the promise contained in these Ayat referred to the battle of Badr or Uhud. The First View, there are two opinions about this, one of them saying that Allah’s statement,

(3:124)Remember thou saidst to the Faithful:

is related to His statement,

God had helped you at Badr, (3:123)

This was reported from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, `Amr Ash-Sha`bi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and several others, Ibn Jarir also agreed with this opinion. `Abbad bin Mansur said that Al-Hasan said that Allah’s statement,

Remember thou saidst to the Faithful:”Is it not enough for you that God should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?

is about the battle of Badr; Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded this statement.

Ibn Abi Hatim then reported that `Amr Ash-Sha`bi said, “On the day of Badr, the Muslims received information that Kurz bin Jabir (a prominent tribe chief) was aiding the idolators, and this news was hard on them, so Allah revealed;

(“Is it not enough for you that your Lord (Allah) should help you with three thousand angels sent down”), until,

(having marks (of distinction))3:124,125.(The news of the defeat of the idolators at Badr reached Kurz and he did not reinforce them, and thus, Allah did not reinforce the Muslims with the five (thousands of angels).”

As for Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, he said, “Allah supported the Muslims with one thousand (angels), then the number reached three thousand, then five thousand.” If one asks, according to this opinion, how can we combine between this Ayah and Allah’s statement about Badr,

((Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying): “I will help you with a thousand angels, each behind the other (following one another) in succession.”) 8:9, until,

(Verily! Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise) We say that the one thousand mentioned here does not contradict the three thousand mentioned in the above Ayah 3:124. The word “in succession” means they follow each other and thus indicates that thousands more will follow them. The two Ayat above 8:9 and 3:124 are similar in meaning and it appears that they both were about the battle of Badr, because the angels did fight in the battle of Badr, as the evidence indicates. Allah knows best.

(3:125)”Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste,

means, if you observe patience while fighting the enemy, all the while fearing Me and obeying My command. Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` and As-Suddi said that Allah’s statement,

even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste,

…and they will come rushing) means, they (angels) will rush to you instantaneously. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means, “All at once”. It is also said that it means, before their anger subsides (against the disbelievers). The Second View

The second opinion stipulates that the promise mentioned here concerning the angels participating in battle is related to Allah’s statement,

(And (remember) when you left your household in the morning to post the believers at their stations for the battle)(3:121) of Uhud. However, we should add, the angels did not come to the aid of Muslims at Uhud, because Allah made it conditional,

“Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright,

The Muslims were not patient at Uhud. Rather, they ran away and, consequently, did not receive the support of even one angel.

your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught.

Abu Ishaq As-Subay`i said; from Harithah bin Mudarrib said that `Ali bin Abi Talib said, “The angels were distinguished by wearing white wool at Badr.” The angels also had special markings distinguishing their horses.

(3:126)God made it but a message of hope for you, and an assurance to your hearts:

This Ayah means, “Allah sent down angels and told you about their descent to encourage you and to comfort and reassure your hearts. You should know that victory only comes from Allah and that if He willed, He would have defeated your enemy without you having to fight them.” For instance, Allah said after commanding the believers to fight,

(But if it had been Allah’s will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight) in order to test some of you with others. But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost. He will guide them and set right their state. And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them) 47:4-6.

This is why Allah said here,

(in any case) there is no help except from God. The Exalted, the Wise:

This Ayah means, “Allah is the Almighty Whose power can never be undermined, and He has the perfect wisdom in His decrees and in all His decisions.” Allah said,

(That He might cut off a part of those who disbelieve,) (3:127) meaning, out of His wisdom, He commands you to perform Jihad and to fight.

Allah then mentions the various consequences of performing Jihad against the disbelievers. For instance, Allah said,

(That He might cut off a part…) meaning, to cause a part of a nation to perish, (of those who disbelieve, or expose them to infamy,) by disgracing them and forcing them to return with only their rage, having failed in their aim to harm you. This is why Allah said next,

(or expose them to infamy, so that they retire) to go back to their land, (frustrated) without achieving their aims. Allah then mentions a statement that testifies that the decision in this life and the Hereafter is for Him Alone without partners,

(Not for you is the decision) (3:128)

meaning, “The matter is all in My Hand.” Allah also said,

(your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning.) (13:40), and,

(Not upon you is their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wills.) (2:272), and,

(Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills) (28: 56). Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Allah’s statement,

(Not for you is the decision;), means, “No part of the decision regarding My servants is yours, except what I command you.” Allah then mentions the rest of the consequences of Jihad,

(whether He pardons them) concerning the acts of disbelief that they commit, thus delivering them from misguidance to the guidance.

(or punishes them;) in this life and the Hereafter because of their disbelief and errors,

(verily, they are the wrongdoers), and thus, they deserve such a fate. Al-Bukhari recorded that, Salim bin `Abdullah said that his father said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying — when he raised his head from bowing in the second unit of the Fajr prayer — “O Allah! Curse so-and-so,” after saying; Sami` Allahu Liman Hamidah, Rabbana wa lakal-Hamd. Thereafter, Allah revealed this Ayah,

(Not for you is the decision;) This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salim bin `Abdullah said that his father said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(O Allah! Curse so-and-so. O Allah! Curse Al-Harith bin Hisham. O Allah! Curse Suhayl bin `Amr. O Allah! Curse Safwan bin Umayyah.) Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed;

(Not for you is the decision; whether He turns in mercy to (pardon) them or punishes them; verily, they are the wrongdoers) (3:128).

All these persons were pardoned (after they embraced Islam later on).

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that when Allah’s Messenger would supplicate against or for someone, he would do so when he was finished bowing and saying; Sami` Allahu Liman Hamidah, Rabbana wa lakal-Hamd. He would then say, (the Qunut)

(O Allah! Save Al-Walid bin Al-Walid, Salamah bin Hisham, `Ayyash bin Abi Rabi`ah and the weak and the helpless people among the faithful believers. O Allah! Be hard on the tribe of Mudar and let them suffer from years of famine like that of the time of Yusuf. )

He would say this supplication aloud. He sometimes would supplicate during the Dawn prayer, “O Allah! Curse so-and-so (persons),” mentioning some Arab tribes. Thereafter, Allah revealed,

(Not for you is the decision.)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Hamid and Thabit said that, Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet was injured during the battle of Uhud and said,

(How can a people achieve success after having injured their Prophet)

Thereafter,

(Not for you is the decision,) was revealed.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that, the Prophet’s front tooth was broken during the battle of Uhud and he also sustained injuries on his forehead until blood dripped on his face. The Prophet said,

(How can a people achieve success after having done this to their Prophet who is calling them to their Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored) Allah revealed,

(Not for you is the decision; whether He turns in mercy to (pardons) them or punishes them; verily, they are the wrongdoers.) Muslim also collected this Hadith. Allah then said,

(And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the Earth.) (3:129), everything is indeed the property of Allah and all are servants in His Hand.

(He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills.) for His is the decision and none can resist His decision. Allah is never asked about what He does, while they will be asked,

(and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

17) 3:140-If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others. Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that God may know those that believe, and that He may take to Himself from your ranks Martyr-witnesses (to Truth). And God loveth not those that do wrong.

18) 3:141-God’s object also is to purge those that are true in Faith and to deprive of blessing Those that resist Faith.

(3:140)If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others.

Therefore, the Ayah says, if you suffered injuries and some of you were killed, then your enemies also suffered injuries and fatalities.

Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns:

and at times — out of wisdom — We allow the enemy to overcome you, although the final good end will be yours.

that God may know those that believe,

meaning, “So that We find out who would be patient while fighting the enemies,” according to Ibn `Abbas.

and that He may take to Himself from your ranks Martyr-witnesses (to Truth).

those who would be killed in Allah’s cause and gladly offer their lives seeking His pleasure.

And God loveth not those that do wrong. (3:141)God’s object also is to purge those that are true in Faith

Otherwise, Allah will raise their grades according to the losses they suffered.

and to deprive of blessing Those that resist Faith.

for it is their conduct that if they gain the upper hand, they transgress and commit aggression. However, this conduct only leads to ultimate destruction, extermination, perishing and dying out.

19) 3:146-How many of the prophets fought (in God’s way), and with them (fought) Large bands of godly men? but they never lost heart if they met with disaster in God’s way, nor did they weaken (in will) nor give in. And God Loves those who are firm and steadfast.

How many of the prophets fought (in God’s way), and with them (fought) Large bands of godly men?

It was said that this Ayah means that many Prophets and their companions were killed in earlier times, as is the view chosen by Ibn Jarir. It was also said that the Ayah means that many Prophets witnessed their companions’ death before their eyes. However, Ibn Ishaq mentioned another explanation in his Sirah, saying that this Ayah means, “Many a Prophet was killed, and he had many companions whose resolve did not weaken after their Prophet died, and they did not become feeble in the face of the enemy. What they suffered in Jihad in Allah’s cause and for the sake of their religion did not make them lose heart. This is patience,

And God Loves those who are firm and steadfast.

” As-Suhayli agreed with this explanation and defended it vigorously. This view is supported by Allah saying;

and with them (fought) Large bands of godly men?

In his book about the battles, Al-Amawi mentioned only this explanation for the Ayah. Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that, Ibn Mas`ud said that,

Large bands of godly men?

means, thousands. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` and `Ata’ Al-Khurasani said that the word Ribbiyyun means, `large bands’. `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ma`mmar said that Al-Hasan said that,

Large bands of godly men?

means, many scholars. He also said that it means patient and pious scholars.

but they never lost heart if they met with disaster in God’s way, nor did they weaken (in will) nor give in.

Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that,

…nor did they weaken (in will)

means, after their Prophet was killed.

nor give in.

by reverting from the true guidance and religion. Rather, they fought on the path that Allah’s Prophet fought on until they met Allah. Ibn `Abbas said that,

nor give in.

means, nor became humiliated, while As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said that it means, they did not give in to the enemy.

And God Loves those who are firm and steadfast.

(3:147) And they said nothing but: “Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and our transgressions, establish our feet firmly, and give us victory over the disbelieving folk.”), and this was the statement that they kept repeating. Therefore,

(So Allah gave them the reward of this world) victory, triumph and the good end,(and the excellent reward of the Hereafter) added to the gains in this life,(And Allah loves the good-doers).

Allah warns His believing servants against obeying the disbelievers and hypocrites, because such obedience leads to utter destruction in this life and the Hereafter. This is why Allah said,

(If you obey those who disbelieve, they will send you back on your heels, and you will turn back (from faith) as losers) (3:149).

Allah also commands the believers to obey Him, take Him as their protector, seek His aid and trust in Him. Allah said,

(Nay, Allah is your protector, and He is the best of helpers).

Allah next conveys the good news that He will put fear of the Muslims, and feelings of subordination to the Muslims in the hearts of their disbelieving enemies, because of their Kufr and Shirk. And Allah has prepared torment and punishment for them in the Hereafter. Allah said,

(We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve, because they joined others in worship with Allah, for which He sent no authority; their abode will be the Fire and how evil is the abode of the wrongdoers). In addition, the Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I was given five things that no other Prophet before me was given. I was aided with fear the distance of one month, the earth was made a Masjid and clean place for me, I was allowed war booty, I was given the Intercession, and Prophets used to be sent to their people, but I was sent to all mankind particularly.)

20) 3:152-God did indeed fulfil His promise to you when ye with His permission Were about to annihilate your enemy, – until ye flinched and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed it after He brought you in sight (of the booty) which ye covet. Among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you but He forgave you: For God is full of grace to those who believe. 21) 3:153-Behold! ye were climbing up the high ground, without even casting a side glance at any one, and the Apostle in your rear was calling you back. There did God give you one distress after another by way of requital, to teach you not to grieve for (the booty) that had escaped you and for (the ill) that had befallen you. For God is well aware of all that ye do.

God did indeed fulfil His promise to you

in the beginning of the day of Uhud,

when ye with His permission

for He allowed you to do that against them,

Were about to annihilate your enemy,

slaying your enemies,

until ye flinched

(until when you Fashiltum). Ibn Jurayj said that Ibn `Abbas said that Fashiltum means, `lost courage’.

and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed it

such as the mistake made by the archers,

after He brought you in sight (of the booty) which ye covet.

that is, victory over the disbelievers,

Among you are some that hanker after this world

referring to those who sought to collect the booty when they saw the enemy being defeated,

and some that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you

This Ayah means, Allah gave them the upper hand to try and test you, O believers,

but He forgave you:

He forgave the error you committed, because, and Allah knows best, the idolators were many and well supplied, while Muslims had few men and few supplies.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said, “We met the idolators on that day (Uhud) and the Prophet appointed `Abdullah bin Jubayr as the commander of the archers. He instructed them, `Retain your position, and if you see that we have defeated them, do not abandon your positions. If you see that they defeated us, do not rush to help us.’ The disbelievers gave flight when we met them, and we saw their women fleeing up the mountain while lifting up their clothes revealing their anklets and their legs. So, the companions (of `Abdullah bin Jubayr) said, `The booty, the booty!’ `Abdullah bin Jubayr said, `Allah’s Messenger commanded me not to allow you to abandon your position.’ They refused to listen, and when they left their position, Muslims were defeated and seventy of them were killed. Abu Sufyan shouted, `Is Muhammad present among these people’ The Prophet said, `Do not answer him.’ Then he asked, `Is the son of Abu Quhafah (Abu Bakr) present among these people’ The Prophet said, `Do not answer him.’ He asked again, `Is the son of Al-Khattab (`Umar) present among these people As for these (men), they have been killed, for had they been alive, they would have answered me.’ `Umar could not control himself and said (to Abu Sufyan), `You lie, O enemy of Allah! The cause of your misery is still present.’ Abu Sufyan said, `O Hubal, be high!’ On that the Prophet said (to his Companions), `Answer him back.’ They said, `What shall we say’ He said, `Say, Allah is Higher and more Sublime.’ Abu Sufyan said, `We have the (idol) Al-`Uzza, and you have no `Uzza.’ The Prophet said, `Answer him back.’ They asked, `What shall we say’ He said, `Say, Allah is our protector and you have no protector.’ Abu Sufyan said, `Our victory today is vengeance for yours in the battle of Badr, and in war (the victory) is always undecided and is shared in turns by the belligerents. You will find some of your killed men mutilated, but I did not urge my men to do so, yet I do not feel sorry for their deed.”’ Only Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith using this chain of narration. cMuhammad bin Ishaq said that, `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr narrated that Az-Zubayr bin Al-`Awwam said, “By Allah! I saw the female servants and female companions of Hind (Abu Sufyan’s wife) when they uncovered their legs and gave flight. At that time, there was no big or small effort separating us from capturing them. However, the archers went down the mount when the enemy gave flight from the battlefield, seeking to collect the booty. They uncovered our back lines to the horsemen of the disbelievers, who took the chance and attacked us from behind. Then a person shouted, `Muhammad has been killed.’ So we pulled back, and the disbelievers followed us, after we had killed those who carried their flag, and none of them dared to come close the flag, until then.”’ Muhammad bin Ishaq said next, “The flag of the disbelievers was left on the ground until `Amrah bint `Alqamah Al-Harithiyyah picked it up and gave it to the Quraysh who held it.”

Allah said,

Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “My uncle Anas bin An-Nadr was absent from the battle of Badr. He said, `I was absent from the first battle the Prophet fought (against the pagans). (By Allah) if Allah gives me a chance to fight along with the Messenger of Allah, then Allah will see how (bravely) I will fight.’ On the day of Uhud when the Muslims turned their backs and fled, he said, `O Allah! I apologize to You for what these (meaning the Muslims) have done, and I denounce what these pagans have done.’ Then he advanced lifting his sword, and when Sa`d bin Mu`adh met him, he said to him, `O Sa`d bin Mu`adh! Where are you! Paradise! I am smelling its aroma coming from before (Mount) Uhud,’ and he went forth, fought and was killed. We found more than eighty stab wounds, sword blows or arrow holes on his body, which was mutilated so badly that none except his sister could recognize him, and she could only do so by his fingers or by a mole.” This is the narration reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim also collected a similar narration from Thabit from Anas.

Behold! ye were climbing up the high ground, without even casting a side glance at any one,

and Allah made the disbelievers leave you after you went up the mount, escaping your enemy. Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that, Tus`iduna, means, `go up the mountain’

without even casting a side glance at any one,

meaning, you did not glance at anyone else due to shock, fear and fright.

and the Apostle in your rear was calling you back.

for you left him behind you, while he was calling you to stop fleeing from the enemy and to return and fight.

As-Suddi said, “When the disbelievers attacked Muslim lines during the battle of Uhud and defeated them, some Muslims ran away to Al-Madinah, while some of them went up Mount Uhud, to a rock and stood on it. On that, the Messenger of Allah kept heralding, `Come to me, O servants of Allah! Come to me, O servants of Allah!’ Allah mentioned that the Muslims went up the Mount and that the Prophet called them to come back, and said,

Behold! ye were climbing up the high ground, without even casting a side glance at any one, and the Apostle in your rear was calling you back.

Similar was said by Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` and Ibn Zayd.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Qays bin Abi Hazim said, “I saw Talhah’s hand, it was paralyzed, because he shielded the Prophet with it.” meaning on the day of Uhud. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu `Uthman An-Nahdi said, “On that day (Uhud) during which the Prophet fought, only Talhah bin `Ubaydullah and Sa`d remained with the Prophet.”

Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said, “I heard Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas saying, `The Messenger of Allah gave me arrows from his quiver on the day of Uhud and said, `Shoot, may I sacrifice my father and mother for you.”’ Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith. The Two Sahihs recorded that Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas said, “On the day of Uhud, I saw two men wearing white clothes, one to the right of the Prophet and one to his left, who were defending the Prophet fiercely. I have never seen these men before or after that day.” Meaning angels Jibril and Mika’il, peace be upon them.

Abu Al-Aswad said that, `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said, “Ubayy bin Khalaf of Bani Jumah swore in Makkah that he would kill the Messenger of Allah . When the Messenger was told of his vow, he said, `Rather, I shall kill him, Allah willing.’ On the day of Uhud, Ubayy came while wearing iron shields and proclaiming, `May I not be saved, if Muhammad is saved.’ He then headed to the direction of the Messenger of Allah intending to kill him, but Mus`ab bin `Umayr, from Bani Abd Ad-Dar, intercepted him and shielded the Prophet with his body, and Mus`ab bin `Umayr was killed. The Messenger of Allah saw Ubayy’s neck exposed between the shields and helmet, stabbed him with his spear, and Ubayy fell from his horse to the ground. However, no blood spilled from his wound. His people came and carried him away while he was moaning like an ox. They said to him, `Why are you so anxious, it is only a flesh wound’ Ubayy mentioned to them the Prophet’s vow, `Rather, I shall kill Ubayy’, then commented, `By He in Whose Hand is my soul! If what hit me hits the people of Dhul-Majaz (a popular pre-Islamic marketplace), they would all have perished.’ He then died and went to the Fire,

(So, away with the dwellers of the blazing Fire!) (67:11).”

This was collected by Musa bin `Uqbah from Az-Zuhri from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib.

It is recorded in the Two Sahih that when he was asked about the injuries the Messenger sustained) in Uhud (, Sahl bin Sa`d said, “The face of Allah’s Messenger was injured, his front tooth was broken and his helmet was smashed on his head. Therefore, Fatimah, the daughter of Allah’s Messenger washed off the blood while `Ali was pouring water on her hand. When Fatimah saw that the bleeding increased more by the water, she took a mat, burnt it, and placed the ashes in the wound of the Prophet and the blood stopped oozing out.” Allah said next,

There did God give you one distress after another

He gave you grief over your grief. Ibn `Abbas said, `The first grief was because of the defeat, especially when it was rumored that Muhammad was killed. The second grief was when the idolators went up the mount and The Messenger of Allah said, `O Allah! It is not for them to rise above us.”’

`Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf said, “The first distress was because of the defeat and the second when a rumor started that Muhammad was killed, which to them, was worse than defeat.” Ibn Marduwyah recorded both of these. Mujahid and Qatadah said, “The first distress was when they heard that Muhammad was killed and the second when they suffered casualties and injury.” It has also been reported that Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that it was the opposite) order.( As-Suddi said that the first distress was because of the victory and booty that they missed and the second because of the enemy rising above them (on the mount).

by way of requital, to teach you not to grieve for (the booty) that had escaped you

for that you missed the booty and triumph over your enemy.

and for (the ill) that had befallen you.

of injury and fatalities, as Ibn `Abbas, `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and As-Suddi stated. Allah said next,

For God is well aware of all that ye do.

all praise is due to Him, and thanks, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, the Most High, Most Honored.

22) 3:154-After (the excitement) of the distress, He sent down calm on a band of you overcome with slumber, while another band was stirred to anxiety by their own feelings, Moved by wrong suspicions of God – suspicions due to ignorance. They said: “What affair is this of ours?” Say thou: “Indeed, this affair is wholly God’s.” They hide in their minds what they dare not reveal to thee. They say (to themselves): “If we had had anything to do with this affair, We should not have been in the slaughter here.” Say: “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death”; but (all this was) that God might test what is in your breasts and purge what is in your hearts. For God knoweth well the secrets of your hearts.

23) 3:155-Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts Met, – it was Satan who caused them to fail, because of some (evil) they had done. But God Has blotted out (their fault): For God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.

Allah reminds His servants of His favor when He sent down on them tranquillity and slumber that overcame them while they were carrying their weapons and feeling distress and grief. In this case, slumber is a favor and carries meanings of calmness and safety. For instance, Allah said in Surat Al-Anfal about the battle of Badr,

((Remember) when He covered you with a slumber as a security from Him) (8:11).

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said that, Abu Talhah said, “I was among those who were overcome by slumber during the battle of Uhud. My sword fell from my hand several times and I would pick it up, then it would fall and I would pick it up again.” Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in the stories of the battles without a chain of narration, and in the book of Tafsir with a chain of narrators. At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim recorded from Anas that Abu Talhah said, “On the day of Uhud, I raised my head and looked around and found that everyone’s head was nodding from slumber.” This is the wording of At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Sahih”. An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith from Anas who said that Abu Talhah said, “I was among those who were overcome by slumber.”

The second group mentioned in the Ayah were the hypocrites who only thought about themselves, for they are the most cowardly people and those least likely to support the truth,

(and thought wrongly of Allah – the thought of ignorance) (3:154), for they are liars and people who have doubts and evil thoughts about Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. Allah said,

After (the excitement) of the distress, He sent down calm on a band of you overcome with slumber,

the people of faith, certainty, firmness and reliance (on Allah) who are certain that Allah shall give victory to His Messenger and fulfill his objective.

while another band was stirred to anxiety by their own feelings,

and they were not overcome by slumber because of their worry, fright and fear,

Moved by wrong suspicions of God – suspicions due to ignorance.

Similarly, Allah said in another statement,

(Nay, but you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families) (48:12).

This group thought that the idolators achieved ultimate victory, when their forces took the upper hand in battle, and that Islam and its people would perish. This is typical of people of doubt and hesitation, in the event of a hardship, they fall into such evil thoughts. Allah then described them that,

They said:

in this situation,

“What affair is this of ours?”

Allah replied,

Say thou: “Indeed, this affair is wholly God’s.” They hide in their minds what they dare not reveal to thee

Allah exposed their secrets, that is,

They say (to themselves): “If we had had anything to do with this affair, We should not have been in the slaughter here

although they tried to conceal this thought from the Messenger of Allah .

Ibn Ishaq recorded that `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said that Az-Zubayr said, “I was with the Messenger of Allah when fear intensified and Allah sent sleep to us (during the battle of Uhud). At that time, every man among us (except the hypocrites) was nodding off. By Allah! As if in a dream, I heard the words of Mu`attib bin Qushayr, `If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.’ I memorized these words of his, which Allah mentioned later on,

They say (to themselves): “If we had had anything to do with this affair, We should not have been in the slaughter here

Ibn Abi Hatim collected this Hadith. Allah the Exalted said,

Say: “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death”;

meaning, this is Allah’s appointed destiny and a decision that will certainly come to pass, and there is no escaping it. Allah’s statement,

but (all this was) that God might test what is in your breasts and purge what is in your hearts.

means, so that He tests you with whatever befell you, to distinguish good from evil and the deeds and statements of the believers from those of the hypocrites,

For God knoweth well the secrets of your hearts.

and what the hearts conceal.

(3:155)Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts Met, – it was Satan who caused them to fail, because of some (evil) they had done.

because of some of their previous errors. Indeed, some of the Salaf said, “The reward of the good deed includes being directed to another good deed that follows it, while the retribution of sin includes committing another sin that follows it.”

But God Has blotted out (their fault):

their giving flight,

For God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.

He forgives sins, pardons and exonerates His creatures. Imam Ahmad recorded that Shaqiq said, ” `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf met Al-Walid bin `Uqbah, who said to him, `Why did you desert `Uthman, the Leader of the Faithful’ `Abdur-Rahman said, `Tell him that I did not run away during Uhud, remain behind during Badr, nor abandon the Sunnah of `Umar.’ Al-Walid told `Uthman what `Abdur-Rahman said. `Uthman replied, `As for his statement, `I did not run away during Uhud,’ how can he blame me for an error that Allah has already forgiven.

Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts Met, – it was Satan who caused them to fail, because of some (evil) they had done. But God Has blotted out (their fault): For God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.

As for his statement that I remained behind from participating in Badr, I was nursing Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah , until she passed away. The Messenger of Allah gave me a share in the booty of Badr, and whoever gets a share in the booty from the Messenger of Allah will have participated in battle. As for his statement that I abandoned the Sunnah of `Umar, neither I nor he are able to endure it. Go and convey this answer to him.”’

24) 3:156-O ye who believe! Be not like the Unbelievers, who say of their brethren, when they are travelling through the Earth or engaged in fighting: “If they had stayed with us, they would not have died, or been slain.” This that God may make it a cause of sighs and regrets in their hearts. It is God that gives Life and Death, and God sees well all that ye do.

25) 3:157-And if ye are slain, or die, in the way of God, forgiveness and mercy from God are far better than all they could amass.

Allah forbids His believing servants from the disbelievers’ false creed, seen in their statement about those who died in battle and during travel; “Had they abandoned these trips, they would not have met their demise.” Allah said,

(3:156)O ye who believe! Be not like the Unbelievers, who say of their brethren,

about their dead brethren,

when they are travelling through the Earth

for the purpose of trading and otherwise,

or engaged in fighting:

participating in battles,

“If they had stayed with us,

in our area,

they would not have died, or been slain.”

they would not have died while traveling or been killed in battle. Allah’s statement,

This that God may make it a cause of sighs and regrets in their hearts.

means, Allah creates this evil thought in their hearts so that their sadness and the grief they feel for their loss would increase. Allah refuted them by saying,

It is God that gives Life and Death,

for the creation is under Allah’s power, and the decision is His Alone. No one lives or dies except by Allah’s leave, and no one’s life is increased or decreased except by His decree.

and God sees well all that ye do.

for His knowledge and vision encompasses all His creation and none of their affairs ever escapes Him. Allah’s statement,

(3:157)And if ye are slain, or die, in the way of God, forgiveness and mercy from God are far better than all they could amass.

indicating that death and martyrdom in Allah’s cause are a means of earning Allah’s mercy, forgiveness and pleasure. This, indeed, is better than remaining in this life with its short lived delights. Furthermore, whoever dies or is killed will return to Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, and He will reward him if he has done good deeds, or will punish him for his evil deeds.

26) 3:165-What! When a single disaster smites you, although ye smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, do ye say? – “Whence is this?” Say (to them): “It is from yourselves: For God hath power over all things.” 27) 3:166-What ye suffered on the day the two armies Met, was with the leave of God, in order that He might test the believers,- 28) 3:167-And the Hypocrites also. These were told: “Come, fight in the way of God, or (at least) drive (The foe from your city).” They said: “Had we known how to fight, we should certainly have followed you.” They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith, saying with their lips what was not in their hearts but God hath full knowledge of all they conceal.

(3:165)What! When a single disaster smites you,

in reference to when the Muslims suffered seventy fatalities during the battle of Uhud,

although ye smote (your enemies) with one twice as great

during Badr, when the Muslims killed seventy Mushriks and captured seventy others,

do ye say? – “Whence is this?”

why did this defeat happen to us

Say (to them): “It is from yourselves:

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “When Uhud occurred, a year after Badr, Muslims were punished for taking ransom from the disbelievers at Badr (in return for releasing the Mushriks whom they captured in that battle.)Thus, they suffered the loss of seventy fatalities and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah gave flight and abandoned him. The Messenger suffered a broken tooth, the helmet was smashed on his head and blood flowed onto his face. Allah then revealed,

When a single disaster smites you, although ye smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, do ye say? – “Whence is this?” Say (to them): “It is from yourselves:

because you took the ransom.” Furthermore, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Ibn Jurayj, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi said that the Ayah,

Say (to them): “It is from yourselves:

means, because you, the archers, disobeyed the Messenger’s command to not abandon your positions.

For God hath power over all things.”

and He does what He wills and decides what He wills, and there is none who can resist His decision.

Allah then said,

(3:166)What ye suffered on the day the two armies Met, was with the leave of God,

for when you ran away from your enemy, who killed many of you and injured many others, all this occurred by Allah’s will and decree out of His perfect wisdom,

in order that He might test the believers, –

who were patient, firm and were not shaken

(3:167)And the Hypocrites also. These were told: “Come, fight in the way of God, or (at least) drive (The foe from your city).” They said: “Had we known how to fight, we should certainly have followed you.”

This refers to the Companions of `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul who went back (to Al-Madinah) with him before the battle. Some believers followed them and encouraged them to come back and fight, saying,

or (at least) drive (The foe from your city).”

so that the number of Muslims increases, as Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih, Al-Hasan and As-Suddi stated. Al-Hasan bin Salih said that this part of the Ayah means, help by supplicating for us, while others said it means, man the posts. However, they refused, saying,

“Had we known how to fight, we should certainly have followed you.”

meaning, according to Mujahid, if we knew that you would fight today, we would join you, but we think you will not fight. Allah said,

They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith,

This Ayah indicates that a person passes through various stages, sometimes being closer to Kufr and sometimes closer to faith, as evident by,

They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith,

Allah then said,

saying with their lips what was not in their hearts

for they utter what they do not truly believe in, such as,

“Had we known how to fight, we should certainly have followed you.”

They knew that there was an army of idolators that came from a far land raging against the Muslims, to avenge their noble men whom the Muslims killed in Badr. These idolators came in larger numbers than the Muslims, so it was clear that a battle will certainly occur. Allah said;

but God hath full knowledge of all they conceal.

29) 3:169-Think not of those who are slain in God’s way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord;

Allah states that even though the martyrs were killed in this life, their souls are alive and receiving provisions in the Dwelling of Everlasting Life. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Masruq said, “We asked `Abdullah about this Ayah,

Think not of those who are slain in God’s way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord;

He said, `We asked the Messenger of Allah the same question and he said,

(Their souls are inside green birds that have lamps, which are hanging below the Throne (of Allah), and they wander about in Paradise wherever they wish. Then they return to those lamps. Allah looks at them and says, `Do you wish for anything’ They say, `What more could we wish for, while we go wherever we wish in Paradise’ Allah asked them this question thrice, and when they realize that He will keep asking them until they give an answer, they say, `O Lord! We wish that our souls be returned to our bodies so that we are killed in Your cause again.’ Allah knew that they did not have any other wish, so they were left.)”’ There are several other similar narrations from Anas and Abu Sa`id.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(No soul that has a good standing with Allah and dies would wish to go back to the life of this world, except for the martyr. He would like to be returned to this life so that he could be martyred again, for he tastes the honor achieved from martyrdom.) Muslim collected this Hadith

In addition, Imam Ahmad recorded that, Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(When your brothers were killed in Uhud, Allah placed their souls inside green birds that tend to the rivers of Paradise and eat from its fruits. They then return to golden lamps hanging in the shade of the Throne. When they tasted the delight of their food, drink and dwelling, they said, `We wish that our brothers knew what Allah gave us so that they will not abandon Jihad or warfare.’ Allah said, `I will convey the news for you.’) Allah revealed these and the following Ayat,

Think not of those who are slain in God’s way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord;

Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` and Ad-Dahhak said that these Ayat were revealed about the martyrs of Uhud.

Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “The Messenger of Allah looked at me one day and said, `O Jabir! Why do I see you sad’ I said, `O Messenger of Allah! My father was martyred and left behind debts and children.’ He said,

(Should I tell you that Allah never spoke to anyone except from behind a veil However, He spoke to your father directly. He said, `Ask Me and I will give you.’ He said, `I ask that I am returned to life so that I am killed in Your cause again.’ The Lord, Exalted He be, said, `I have spoken the word that they shall not be returned back to it (this life). ‘ He said, `O Lord! Then convey the news to those left behind.’) Allah revealed,

Think not of those who are slain in God’s way as dead

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The martyrs convene at the shore of a river close to the door of Paradise, in a green tent, where their provisions are brought to them from Paradise day and night.)

Ahmad and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith, which has a good chain of narration. It appears that the martyrs are of different types, some of them wander in Paradise, and some remain close to this river by the door of Paradise. It is also possible that the river is where all the souls of the martyrs convene and where they are provided with their provision day and night, and Allah knows best. UImam Ahmad narrated a Hadith that contains good news for every believer that his soul will be wandering in Paradise, as well, eating from its fruits, enjoying its delights and happiness and tasting the honor that Allah has prepared in it for him. This Hadith has a unique, authentic chain of narration that includes three of the Four Imams. Imam Ahmad narrated this Hadith from Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafi`i who narrated it from Malik bin Anas Al-Asbuhi, from Az-Zuhri, from `Abdur-Rahman bin Ka`b bin Malik that his father said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The soul of the believer becomes a bird that feeds on the trees of Paradise, until Allah sends him back to his body when He resurrects him.)

This Hadith states that the souls of the believers are in the shape of a bird in Paradise. As for the souls of martyrs, they are inside green birds, like the stars to the rest of the believing souls. We ask Allah the Most Generous that He makes us firm on the faith.

Allah’s statement,

(3:170) (They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them) indicates that the martyrs who were killed in Allah’s cause are alive with Allah, delighted because of the bounty and happiness they are enjoying. They are also awaiting their brethren, who will die in Allah’s cause after them, for they will be meeting them soon. These martyrs do not have fear about the future or sorrow for what they left behind. We ask Allah to grant us Paradise. The Two Sahihs record from Anas, the story of the seventy Ansar Companions who were murdered at Bir Ma`unah in one night. In this Hadith, Anas reported that the Prophet used to supplicate to Allah in Qunut in prayer against those who killed them. Anas said, “A part of the Qur’an was revealed about them, but was later abrogated, `Convey to our people that we met Allah and He was pleased with us and made us pleased.”’

(They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers) (3:171).

Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, “They were delighted and pleased because of Allah’s promise that was fulfilled for them, and for the tremendous rewards they earned.” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “This Ayah encompasses all the believers, martyrs and otherwise. Rarely does Allah mention a bounty and a reward that He granted to the Prophets, without following that with what He has granted the believers after them.”

30) 3:172-Of those who answered the call of God and the Apostle, even after being wounded, those who do right and refrain from wrong have a great reward; – 31) 3:173-Men said to them: “A great army is gathering against you”: And frightened them: But it (only) increased their Faith: They said: “For us God sufficeth, and He is the best disposer of affairs.”

(3:172)Of those who answered the call of God and the Apostle, even after being wounded,

This occurred on the day of Hamra’ Al-Asad. After the idolators defeated the Muslims (at Uhud), they started on their way back home, but soon they were concerned because they did not finish off the Muslims in Al-Madinah, so they set out to make that battle the final one. When the Messenger of Allah got news of this, he commanded the Muslims to march to meet the disbelievers, to bring fear to their hearts and to demonstrate that the Muslims still had strength to fight. The Prophet only allowed those who were present during Uhud to accompany him, except for Jabir bin `Abdullah Al-Ansari, as we will mention. The Muslims mobilized, even though they were still suffering from their injuries, in obedience to Allah and His Messenger .

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, “When the idolators returned (towards Makkah) after Uhud, they said, `You neither killed Muhammad nor collected female captives. Woe to you for what you did. Let us go back.’ When the Messenger of Allah heard this news, he mobilized the Muslim forces, and they marched until they reached Hamra Al-Asad. The idolators said, `Rather, we will meet next year’, and the Messenger of Allah went back (to Al-Madinah), and this was considered a Ghazwah (battle). Allah sent down,

Of those who answered the call of God and the Apostle, even after being wounded, those who do right and refrain from wrong have a great reward; –

Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah said to `Urwah about the Ayah;

Of those who answered the call of God and the Apostle,

“My nephew! Your fathers Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr were among them. After the Prophet suffered the calamity at Uhud and the idolators went back, he feared that the idolators might try to come back and he said, `Who would follow them’ Seventy men, including Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr, volunteered.” This was recorded by Al-Bukhari alone.

As for Allah’s statement

(3:173)Men said to them: “A great army is gathering against you”: And frightened them: But it (only) increased their Faith:

it means, those who threatened the people, saying that the disbelievers have amassed against them, in order to instill fear in them, but this did not worry them, rather, they trusted in Allah and sought His help,

They said: “For us God sufficeth, and He is the best disposer of affairs.”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

(“Allah Alone is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.”)

“Ibrahim said it when he was thrown in fire. Muhammad said it when the people said, `Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.’ But it only increased them in faith, and they said, `Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.”’ Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet was told on the day of Uhud, “Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.” Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah (3:173).

This is why Allah said,

(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) for when they relied on Allah, Allah took care of their worries, He confounded the plots of their enemies, and the Muslims returned to their land,

(with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) safe from the wicked plots of their enemies,

(and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.)

Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah,) “The `Grace’ was that they were saved. The `Bounty’ was that a caravan passed by, and those days were (Hajj) season days. Thus the Messenger of Allah bought and sold and made a profit, which he divided between his Companions.”

Allah then said,

(It is only Shaytan that suggests to you the fear of his friends,) (3:175) meaning, Shaytan threatens you with his friends and tries to pretend they are powerful and fearsome. Allah said next,

(so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.) meaning, “If Shaytan brings these thoughts to you, then depend on Me and seek refuge with Me. Indeed, I shall suffice you and make you prevail over them.” Similarly, Allah said,

(Is not Allah Sufficient for His servant Yet they try to frighten you with those besides Him!) (39: 36), until,

(Say: “Sufficient for me is Allah; in Him those who trust must put their trust.”) (39:38). Allah said,

(So fight you against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan.) (4:76) and

(They are the party of Shaytan. Verily, it is the party of Shaytan that will be the losers!) (58:19),

(Allah has decreed: “Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.” Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, All-Mighty.) (58:21) and

(Verily, Allah will help those who help His (cause).) (22:40) and

(O you who believe! If you help (in the cause of) Allah, He will help you) (47:7), and,(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe, in this world’s life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth. The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.) (40:51,52)

32) 3:195-And their Lord hath accepted of them, and answered them: “Never will I suffer to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female: Ye are members, one of another: Those who have left their homes, or been driven out therefrom, or suffered harm in My Cause, or fought or been slain, – verily, I will blot out from them their iniquities, and admit them into Gardens with rivers flowing beneath; – A reward from the presence of God, and from His presence is the best of rewards.”

And their Lord hath accepted of them,

answered their invocation. Sa`id bin Mansur recorded that Salamah, a man from the family of Umm Salamah said, “Umm Salamah said, `O Messenger of Allah! Allah does not mention women in connection with Hijrah (Migration).’ Allah sent down the Ayah,

(So their Lord accepted of them (their supplication and answered them), “Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female.)

The Ansar say that Umm Salamah was the first woman to migrate to them.” Al-Hakim collected this Hadith in his Mustadrak, and said, “It is Sahih according to the criteria of Al-Bukhari but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not collect it”.

Allah’s statement,

“Never will I suffer to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female:

explains the type of answer Allah gave them, stating that no deed of any person is ever lost with Him. Rather, He will completely reward each person for his or her good deeds. Allah’s statement,

Ye are members, one of another:

means, you are all equal in relation to gaining My reward. Therefore,

Those who have left their homes,

by leaving the land of Shirk and migrating to the land of faith, leaving behind their loved ones, brethren, friends and neighbors,

or been driven out there from

when the Mushriks tormented them and forced them to migrate,

or suffered harm in My Cause,

for their only wrong, to the people, was that they believed in Allah Alone. In similar Ayat, Allah said,

(and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves because you believe in Allah your Lord!) (60:1), and,

(And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, the Almighty, Worthy of all praise!) (85:8) . Allah’s statement,

or fought or been slain,

(refers to the highest rank there is, that one fights in the cause of Allah and dies in the process, with his face covered in dust and blood. It is recorded in the Sahih that a man said,

(‘O Messenger of Allah! If I was killed in Allah’s cause, observing patience, awaiting Allah’s reward, attacking, not retreating, would Allah forgive my sins’ The Prophet said, `Yes.’ The Prophet then asked the man, `What did you ask’ When the man repeated the question, the Prophet said, `Yes, except for the debt, for Jibril conveyed this to me right now’.)

This is why Allah said here,

verily, I will blot out from them their iniquities, and admit them into Gardens with rivers flowing beneath;

within Paradise, where there are rivers of various drinks: milk, honey, wine and fresh water. There is what no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard and no heart has ever imagined (of delights in Paradise). Allah’s statement,

– A reward from the presence of God,

testifies to His might, for the Mighty and Most Great only gives tremendous rewards. Allah’s statement,

and from His presence is the best of rewards.”

for those who perform good deeds.

33) 4:071-O ye who believe! Take your precautions, and either go forth in parties or go forth all together. 34) 4:072-There are certainly among you men who would tarry behind: If a misfortune befalls you, they say: “God did favour us in that we were not present among them.” 35) 4:074-Let those fight in the cause of God Who sell the life of this world for the hereafter. To him who fighteth in the cause of God, – whether he is slain or gets victory – Soon shall We give him a reward of great (value).

Allah commands His faithful servants to take precautions against their enemies, by being prepared with the necessary weapons and supplies, and increasing the number of troops fighting in His cause.

(4:071) in parties

means, group after group, party after party, and expedition after expedition. `Ali bin Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that,

and either go forth in parties

means, “In groups, expedition after expedition,

or go forth all together.

means, all of you.” Similar was reported from Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, `Ata’ Al-Khurrasani, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Khusayf Al-Jazari.

(4:072)There are certainly among you men who would tarry behind:

Mujahid and others said that this Ayah was revealed about the hypocrites. Muqatil bin Hayyan said that,

tarry behind:

means, stays behind and does not join Jihad. It is also possible that this person himself lingers behind, while luring others away from joining Jihad. For instance, `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, may Allah curse him, used to linger behind and lure other people to do the same and refrain from joining Jihad, as Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Jarir stated. This is why Allah said about the hypocrite, that when he lingers behind from Jihad, then:

If a misfortune befalls you,

death, martyrdom, or – by Allah’s wisdom – being defeated by the enemy,

they say: “God did favour us in that we were not present among them.”

meaning, since I did not join them in battle. Because he considers this one of Allah’s favors on him, unaware of the reward that he might have gained from enduring war or martyrdom, if he was killed.

(4:073)(But if a bounty comes to you from Allah) such as victory, triumph and booty,

(he would surely say – as if there had never been ties of affection between you and him,) meaning, as if he was not a follower of your religion,

(“Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.”) by being assigned a share of the booty and taking possession of that share. This is his ultimate aim and objective.

(4:074)Let those fight in the cause of God

the believer with an aversion (to fighting),

Who sell the life of this world for the hereafter.

referring to those sell their religion for the meager goods of the world, and they only do this because of their disbelief and lack of faith. Allah then said;

To him who fighteth in the cause of God, – whether he is slain or gets victory – Soon shall We give him a reward of great (value).

meaning, whoever fights in the cause of Allah, whether he was killed or triumphant, he will earn an immense compensation and a great reward with Allah. The Two Sahihs recorded,

(Allah has guaranteed the Mujahid in His cause that He will either bring death to him, admitting into Paradise; or, He will help him return safely to his home with whatever reward and booty he gained.)

36) 4:075-And why should ye not fight in the cause of God and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)? – Men, women, and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!”

37) 4:076-Those who believe fight in the cause of God, and those who reject Faith Fight in the cause of Evil: So fight ye against the friends of Satan: feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan.

Allah encouraged His believing servants to perform Jihad in His cause and to strive hard to save the oppressed Muslims in Makkah, men, women and children who were restless because of having to remain there. This is why Allah said,

(4:075) whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town,

referring to Makkah. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

(And many a town, stronger than your town which has driven you out) Allah then describes this town,

whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!”

meaning, send protectors and helpers for us. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “I and my mother were from the oppressed (in Makkah).” Allah then said,

(4:076)Those who believe fight in the cause of God, and those who reject Faith Fight in the cause of Evil:

Therefore, the believers fight in obedience to Allah and to gain His pleasure, while the disbelievers fight in obedience to Shaytan. Allah then encourages the believers to fight His enemies,

So fight ye against the friends of Satan: feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan.

38) 4:077-Hast thou not turned Thy vision to those who were told to hold back their hands (from fight) but establish regular prayers and spend in regular charity? When (at length) the order for fighting was issued to them, behold! a section of them feared men as – or even more than – they should have feared God: They said: “Our Lord! Why hast Thou ordered us to fight? Wouldst Thou not Grant us respite to our (natural) term, near (enough)?” Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world: the Hereafter is the best for those who do right: Never will ye be dealt with unjustly in the very least!

In the beginning of Islam, Muslims in Makkah were commanded to perform the prayer and pay some charity, so as to comfort the poor among them. They were also commanded to be forgiving and forbearing with the idolators and to observe patience with them at the time. However, they were eager and anticipating the time when they would be allowed to fight, so that they could punish their enemies. The situation at that time did not permit armed conflict for many reasons. For instance, Muslims were few at the time, compared to their numerous enemies. The Muslims’ city was a sacred one and the most honored area on the earth, and this is why the command to fight was not revealed in Makkah. Later on when the Muslims controlled a town of their own, Al-Madinah, and had strength, power and support, Jihad was then legislated. Yet, when the command to fight was revealed, just as Muslims wished, some of them became weary and were very fearful of facing the idolators in battle.

They said: “Our Lord! Why hast Thou ordered us to fight? Wouldst Thou not Grant us respite to our (natural) term, near (enough)?”

meaning, we wish that Jihad was delayed until a later time, because it means bloodshed, orphans and widows. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

(Those who believe say: “Why is not a Surah sent down (for us) But when a decisive is sent down, and fighting is mentioned). Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf and several of his companions came to the Prophet while in Makkah and said, “O Allah’s Prophet! We were mighty when we were pagans, but when we embraced the faith, we became weak.” The Prophet said,

(I was commanded to pardon the people, so do not fight them.) When Allah transferred the Prophet to Al-Madinah, He commanded him to fight (the idolators), but they (some Muslims) held back. So, Allah revealed the Ayah;

-Hast thou not turned Thy vision to those who were told to hold back their hands (from fight)

This Hadith was collected by An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim. Allah’s statement,

Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world: the Hereafter is the best for those who do right:

means, the destination of the one who with Taqwa is better for him than this life.

Never will ye be dealt with unjustly in the very least!

for your good deeds. Rather, you will earn your full rewards for them. This promise directs the focus of believers away from this life and makes them eager for the Hereafter, all the while encouraging them to fight in Jihad.

39) 4:084-Then fight in God’s cause – Thou art held responsible only for thyself – and rouse the believers. It may be that God will restrain the fury of the Unbelievers; for God is the strongest in might and in punishment.

Allah commands His servant and Messenger, Muhammad , to himself fight in Jihad and not to be concerned about those who do not join Jihad. Hence Allah’s statement,

Thou art held responsible only for thyself

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Ishaq said, “I asked Al-Bara bin `Azib about a man who meets a hundred enemies and still fights them, would he be one of those referred to in Allah’s statement,

(And do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the cause of Allah)) He said, `Allah said to His Prophet,

Then fight in God’s cause – Thou art held responsible only for thyself – and rouse the believers

(to fight along with you)).” Imam Ahmad recorded Sulayman bin Dawud saying that Abu Bakr bin `Ayyash said that Abu Ishaq said, “I asked Al-Bara’, `If a man attacks the lines of the idolators, would he be throwing himself to destruction’ He said, `No because Allah has sent His Messenger and commanded him,

Then fight in God’s cause – Thou art held responsible only for thyself-

That Ayah is about spending in Allah’s cause.

and rouse the believers

to fight, by encouraging them and strengthening their resolve in this regard. For instance, the Prophet said to the believers at the battle of Badr, while organizing their lines,

(Stand up and march forth to a Paradise, as wide as the heavens and Earth.) There are many Hadiths that encourage Jihad. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever believes in Allah and His Messenger, offers prayer, pays the Zakah and fasts the month of Ramadan, will rightfully be granted Paradise by Allah, no matter whether he migrates in Allah’s cause or remains in the land where he is born.) The people said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Shall we acquaint the people with this good news’ He said,

(Paradise has one hundred grades which Allah has reserved for the Mujahidin who fight in His cause, the distance between each two grades is like the distance between the heaven and the Earth. So, when you ask Allah, ask for Al-Firdaws, which is the best and highest part of Paradise, above it is the Throne of the Most Beneficent (Allah) and from it originate the rivers of Paradise.) There are various narrations for this Hadith from `Ubadah, Mu`adh, and Abu Ad-Darda’. Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

(O Abu Sa`id! Whoever accepts Allah as his Lord, Islam as his religion and Muhammad as the Prophet, then he would rightfully acquire Paradise.) Abu Sa`id liked these words and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Repeat them for me.” The Prophet repeated his words, then said,

(Jihad in Allah’s cause.) This Hadith was collected by Muslim. Allah’s statement,

It may be that God will restrain the fury of the Unbelievers;

means, by your encouraging them to fight, their resolve will be strengthened to meet the enemy in battle, to defend Islam and its people and to endure and be patient against the enemy. Allah’s statement,

for God is the strongest in might and in punishment.

means, He is able over them in this life and the Hereafter, just as He said in another Ayah,

But if it had been Allah’s will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight) in order to test some of you with others) (47:4).

40) 4:089-They but wish that ye should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they): But take not friends from their ranks until they flee in the way of God (From what is forbidden). But if they turn renegades, seize them and slay them wherever ye find them; and (in any case) take no friends or helpers from their ranks; – 41) 4:090-Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. If God had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you: Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (Guarantees of) peace, then God Hath opened no way for you (to war against them). 42) 4:091-Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people: Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto: if they withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands, seize them and slay them wherever ye get them: In their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them.

(4:88. Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites Allah has cast them back because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him a way.)

Allah criticizes the believers for disagreeing over the hypocrites. There are conflicting opinions over the reason behind revealing this Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Zayd bin Thabit said that Messenger of Allah marched towards Uhud. However, some people who accompanied him went back to Al-Madinah, and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah divided into two groups concerning them, one saying they should be killed and the other objecting. Allah sent down,

(Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites) The Messenger of Allah said,

(She (Al-Madinah) is Taybah, and she expels filth, just as the billow expels rust from iron.) The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah was revealed about some people in Makkah who said they embraced Islam, yet they gave their support to the idolators. One time, theses people went out of Makkah to fulfill some needs and said to each other, “If we meet the Companions of Muhammad, there will be no harm for us from their side.” When the believers got news that these people went out of Makkah, some of them said, “Let us march to these cowards and kill them, because they support your enemy against you.” However, another group from the believers said, “Glory be to Allah! Do you kill a people who say as you have said, just because they did not perform Hijrah or leave their land Is it allowed to shed their blood and confiscate their money in this case” So they divided to two groups, while the Messenger was with them, and did not prohibit either group from reiterating their argument. Thereafter, Allah revealed,

(Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this Hadith. Allah said,

(Allah has cast them back because of what they have earned.) meaning, He made them revert to, and fall into error. Ibn `Abbas said that,

(Arkasahum) means, `cast them’ . Allah’s statement,

(because of what they have earned) means, because of their defiance and disobedience to the Messenger and following falsehood.

(Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him a way.) meaning, there will be no path for him, or way to guidance. Allah’s statement,

(4:089)They but wish that ye should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they):

means, they wish that you fall into misguidance, so that you and they are equal in that regard. This is because of their extreme enmity and hatred for you. Therefore, Allah said,

But take not friends from their ranks until they flee in the way of God (From what is forbidden). But if they turn renegades,

if they abandon Hijrah, as Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas. As-Suddi said that this part of the Ayah means, “If they make their disbelief public.”

Allah excluded some people;

(4:090)Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace),

meaning, except those who join and take refuge with a people with whom you have a pact of peace, or people of Dhimmah, then treat them as you treat the people with whom you have peace. This is the saying of As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir. In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded the story of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah, where it was mentioned that whoever liked to have peace with Quraysh and conduct a pact with them, then they were allowed. Those who liked to have peace with Muhammad and his Companions and enter a pact with them were allowed. It was reported that Ibn `Abbas said that this Ayah was later abrogated by Allah’s statement,

(Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators wherever you find them) Allah said,

or those who approach you with hearts restraining

referring to another type of people covered by the exclusion from fighting. They are those who approach the Muslims with hesitation in their hearts because of their aversion to fighting the Muslims. They do not have the heart to fight with the Muslims against their own people. Therefore, they are neither with nor against Muslims.

God had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you:

meaning, it is from Allah’s mercy that He has stopped them from fighting you.

Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (Guarantees of) peace,

meaning, they revert to peace,

then God Hath opened no way for you (to war against them).

you do not have the right to kill them, as long as they take this position. This was the position of Banu Hashim (the tribe of the Prophet ), such as Al-`Abbas, who accompanied the idolators in the battle of Badr, for they joined the battle with great hesitation. This is why the Prophet commanded that Al-`Abbas not be killed, but only captured. Allah’s statement,

(4:091)Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people:

refers to a type of people who on the surface appear to be like the type we just mentioned. However, the intention of each type is different, for the latter are hypocrites. They pretend to be Muslims with the Prophet and his Companions, so that they could attain safety with the Muslims for their blood, property and families. However, they support the idolators in secret and worship what they worship, so that they are at peace with them also. These people have secretly sided with the idolators, just as Allah described them,

(But when they are alone with their Shayatin, they say: “Truly, we are with you.”). In this Ayah, Allah said,

Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto:

meaning, they dwell in Fitnah. As-Suddi said that the Fitnah mentioned here refers to Shirk. Ibn Jarir recorded that Mujahid said that the Ayah was revealed about a group from Makkah who used to go to the Prophet (in Al-Madinah) pretending to be Muslims. However, when they went back to Quraysh, they reverted to worshipping idols. They wanted to be at peace with both sides. Allah commanded they should be fought against, unless they withdraw from combat and resort to peace. This is why Allah said,

if they withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace

meaning, revert to peaceful and complacent behavior,

besides restraining their hands,

refrain from fighting you,

seize them

capture them,

and slay them wherever ye get them:

wherever you find them,

In their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them.

meaning an unequivocal and plain warrant.

43) 4:094-O ye who believe! When ye go abroad in the cause of God, investigate carefully, and say not to any one who offers you a salutation: “Thou art none of a believer!” Coveting the perishable goods of this life: with God are profits and spoils abundant. Even thus were ye yourselves before, till God conferred on you His favours: Therefore carefully investigate. For God is well aware of all that ye do.

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “A man from Bani Sulaym, who was tending a flock of sheep, passed by some of the Companions of the Prophet and said Salam to them. They said (to each other), `He only said Salam to protect himself from us.’ Then they attacked him and killed him. They brought his sheep to the Prophet , and this Ayah was revealed,

O ye who believe!

until the end of the Ayah.” At-Tirmidhi recorded this in his (chapter on) Tafsir, and said, “This Hadith is Hasan, and it is also reported from Usamah bin Zayd.” Al-Hakim also recorded it and said, “Its chain is Sahih, but they did not collect it.” Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented;

and say not to any one who offers you a salutation: “Thou art none of a believer”

“A man was tending his sheep and the Muslims caught up with him. He said, `As-Salamu `Alaykum.’ However, they killed him and took his sheep. Allah revealed the Ayah;

and say not to any one who offers you a salutation: “Thou art none of a believer!” Coveting the perishable goods of this life:

Ibn `Abbas said; “The goods of this world were those sheep.” And he recited,

(Peace) Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Qa`qa` bin Abdullah bin Abi Hadrad narrated that his father `Abdullah bin Abi Hadrad said, “The Messenger of Allah sent us to (the area of) Idam. I rode out with a group of Muslims that included Abu Qatadah, Al-Harith bin Rab`i and Muhallam bin Juthamah bin Qays. We continued on until we reached the area of Idam, where `Amr bin Al-Adbat Al-Ashja`i passed by us on his camel. When he passed by us he said Salam to us, and we did not attack him. Because of some previous problems with him, Muhallam bin Juthamah killed him and took his camel. When we went back to the Messenger of Allah and told him what had happened, a part of the Qur’an was revealed about us,

O ye who believe! When ye go abroad in the cause of God,

until,

(Well-Aware).” Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said to Al-Miqdad,

(You killed a believing man who hid his faith with disbelieving people, after he had announced his faith to you. Remember that you used to hide your faith in Makkah before.) Al-Bukhari recorded this shorter version without a complete chain of narrators. However a longer version with a connected chain of narrators has also been recorded. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah sent a military expedition under the authority of Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad and when they reached the designated area, they found the people had dispersed. However, a man with a lot of wealth did not leave and said, `I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ Yet, Al-Miqdad killed him, and a man said to him, `You killed a man after he proclaimed: “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. By Allah I will mention what you did to the Prophet .’ When they went back to the Messenger of Allah, they said, `O Messenger of Allah! Al-Miqdad killed a man who testified that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ He said,

(Summon Al-Miqdad before me. O Miqdad! Did you kill a man who proclaimed, “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah” What would you do when you face, “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah tomorrow”) Allah then revealed;

O ye who believe! When ye go abroad in the cause of God, investigate carefully, and say not to any one who offers you a salutation: “Thou art none of a believer!” Coveting the perishable goods of this life: with God are profits and spoils abundant. Even thus were ye yourselves before, till God conferred on you His favours: Therefore carefully investigate.

The Messenger of Allah said to Al-Miqdad,

(He was a believing man who hid his faith among disbelieving people, and he announced his faith to you, but you killed him, although you used to hide your faith before, in Makkah.)” Allah’s statement,

with God are profits and spoils abundant.

means, better than what you desired of worldly possessions which made you kill the one who greeted you with the Salam and pronounced his faith to you. Yet, you ignored all this and accused him of hypocrisy, to acquire the gains of this life. However, the pure wealth with Allah is far better than what you acquired. Allah’s statement,

Even thus were ye yourselves before, till God conferred on you His favours:

means, beforehand, you used to be in the same situation like this person who hid his faith from his people. We mentioned the relevant Hadiths above. Allah said,

(And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land). `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr commented about Allah’s statement,

Even thus were ye yourselves before,

“You used to hide your faith, just as this shepherd hid his faith.” Allah said,

Therefore carefully investigate.

then said,

For God is well aware of all that ye do.

and this part of the Ayah contains a threat and a warning, as Sa`id bin Jubayr stated.

44) 4:095-Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of God with their goods and their persons. God hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all (in Faith) Hath God promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward,

Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said, “When the Ayah,

Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt,

was revealed, the Messenger of Allah called Zayd and commanded him to write it. Then, Ibn Umm Maktum came and mentioned that he was blind. Allah revealed,

(except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame)).” Al-Bukhari recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`di said, “I saw Marwan bin Al-Hakam sitting in the Masjid. I came and sat by his side. He told us that Zayd bin Thabit told him that Allah’s Messenger dictated this Ayah to him,

Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of God

Ibn Umm Maktum came to the Prophet as he was dictating that very Ayah to me. Ibn Umm Maktum said, `O Allah’s Messenger! By Allah, if I had power, I would surely take part in Jihad.’ He was a blind man. So Allah sent down revelation to His Messenger while his thigh was on mine and it became so heavy for me that I feared that my thigh would be broken. That ended after Allah revealed,

(except those who are disabled).” This was recorded by Al-Bukhari. At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled), refers to those who did not go to the battle of Badr and those who went to Badr. When the battle of Badr was about to occur, Abu Ahmad bin Jahsh and Ibn Umm Maktum said, `We are blind, O Messenger of Allah! Do we have an excuse’ The Ayah

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled) was revealed. Allah made those who fight, above those who sit in their homes not hindered by disability.

God hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home).

above the believers who sit at home without a disability hindering them.” This is the wording recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Gharib. Allah’s statement,

Not equal are those believers who sit (at home)

this is general. Soon after, the revelation came down with,

(except those who are disabled). So whoever has a disability, such as blindness, a limp, or an illness that prevents them from joining Jihad, they were not compared to the Mujahidin who strive in Allah’s cause with their selves and wealth, as those who are not disabled and did not join the Jihad were. In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(There are people who remained in Al-Madinah, who were with you in every march you marched and every valley you crossed.) They said, “While they are still in Al-Madinah, O Messenger of Allah” He said,

(Yes. Only their disability hindered them (from joining you).) Allah said,

Unto all (in Faith) Hath God promised good:

meaning, Paradise and tremendous rewards. This Ayah indicates that Jihad is not Fard on each and every individual, but it is Fard Kifayah (which is a collective duty). Allah then said,

But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward,

Allah mentions what He has given them rooms in Paradise, along with His forgiveness and the descent of mercy and blessing on them, as a favor and honor from Him. So He said;

(4:096)(Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.). In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(There are a hundred grades in Paradise that Allah has prepared for the Mujahidin in His cause, between each two grades is the distance between heaven and Earth.)

45) 4:100-He who forsakes his home in the cause of God, finds in the earth Many a refuge, wide and spacious: Should he die as a refugee from home for God and His Apostle, His reward becomes due and sure with God: And God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

He who forsakes his home in the cause of God, finds in the earth Many a refuge, wide and spacious:

this encourages the believers to perform Hijrah and abandon the idolators, for wherever the believer emigrates, he will find a safe refuge to resort to. Mujahid said that,

Many a refuge,

means, he will find a way out of what he dislikes. Allah’s statement,

wide and spacious:

refers to provision. Qatadah also said that,

(…will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by.) means, Allah will take him from misguidance to guidance and from poverty to richness. Allah’s statement,

Should he die as a refugee from home for God and His Apostle, His reward becomes due and sure with God:

means, whoever starts emigrating and dies on the way, he will acquire the reward of those who emigrate for Allah. The Two Sahihs, along with the Musnad and Sunan compilers, recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions, and every person will be rewarded according to what he has intended. So, whoever emigrated to Allah and His Messenger, then his emigration is for Allah and His Messenger. And whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration is for what he emigrated for.) This Hadith is general, it applies to Hijrah as well as every other deed. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that a man killed ninety-nine people and completed the number one hundred when he killed a worshipper. He then asked a scholar if he has a chance to repent. The scholar said, “What prevents you from repentance” The scholar told the killer to emigrate from his land to another land where Allah is worshipped. When he left his land and started on the migration to the other land, death overtook him on the way. The angels of mercy and the angels of torment disputed about the man, whereas the former said that he went out in repentance, while the latter said that he did not arrive at his destination. They were commanded to measure the distance between the two lands and to whichever land he is closer to, he will be considered part of that land. Allah commanded that the righteous land to move closer and the land of evil to move farther. The angels found that he died closer to the land that he intended to emigrate to by a hand-span, and thus the angels of mercy captured his soul. In another narration, when death came to that man, he moved his chest towards the righteous village that he emigrated to.

(4:101). And when you Darabtum in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten the Salah if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial, verily, the disbelievers are ever unto you open enemies.)

(And when you Darabtum in the land,) meaning if you travel in the land. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(He knows that there will be some among you sick, others Yadribuna (traveling) through the land, seeking of Allah’s bounty…) (73:20). Allah’s statement,

(there is no sin on you if you shorten the Salah (prayer)) by reducing (the units of the prayer) from four to two. Allah’s statement,

(if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial (attack you)), refers to the typical type of fear prevalent when this Ayah was revealed. In the beginning of Islam, and after the Hijrah, Muslims used to experience fear during most of their travels. Rather, they restricted their movements to large or short military expeditions. During that era, most areas were areas of combatant enemies of Islam and its people. But when the prevalent circumstances cease, or a new situation is prevalent, decrees of this nature may not be understood, as Allah said;

(And force not your slave girls to prostitution, if they desire chastity). And His saying;

(And your stepdaughters, under your guardianship, born of your wives whom you have gone into) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ya`la bin Umayyah said, “I asked `Umar bin Al-Khattab about the verse:

(there is no sin on you if you shorten the prayer. If you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial,) e `Allah granted Muslims safety now’ `Umar said to me, `I wondered about the same thing and asked the Messenger of Allah about it and he said,

(A gift that Allah has bestowed on you, so accept His gift).” Muslim and the collectors of Sunan recorded this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”. `Ali bin Al-Madini said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih from the narration of `Umar, and it is not preserved by any other route besides this one, and its narrators are all known.” Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah recorded that Abu Hanzalah Al-Hadha’ said, “I asked Ibn `Umar about the Qasr prayer and he said, `It consists of two Rak`ahs.’ I said, what about Allah’s statement

(if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial (attack you),) `We are safe now.’ He said, `This is the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah .”’. Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said, “We went out with the Messenger of Allah from Al-Madinah to Makkah; he used to pray two Rak`ahs until we went back to Al-Madinah.” When he was asked how long they remained in Makkah, he said, “We remained in Makkah for ten days.” This was recorded by the Group. Imam Ahmad recorded that Harithah bin Wahb Al-Khuza`i said, “I prayed behind the Prophet for the Zuhr and `Asr prayers in Mina, when the people were numerous and very safe, and he prayed two Rak`ahs.” This was recorded by the Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah. Al-Bukhari’s narration of this Hadith reads, “The Prophet led us in the prayer at Mina during the peace period by offering two Rak`ahs. ”

46) 4:102-When thou (O Apostle) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer, Let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with thee, Taking their arms with them: When they finish their prostrations, let them Take their position in the rear. And let the other party come up which hath not yet prayed – and let them pray with thee, Taking all precaution, and bearing arms: the Unbelievers wish, if ye were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if ye put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because ye are ill; but take (every) precaution for yourselves. For the Unbelievers God hath prepared a humiliating punishment.

The Fear prayer has different forms, for the enemy is sometimes in the direction of the Qiblah and sometimes in another direction. The Fear prayer consists sometimes of four Rak`ahs, three Rak`ahs, as for Maghrib, and sometimes two Rak`ah like Fajr and prayer during travel. The Fear prayer is sometimes prayed in congregation, but when the battle is raging, congregational prayer may not be possible. In this case, they pray each by himself, facing the Qiblah or otherwise, riding or on foot. In this situation, they are allowed to walk and fight, all the while performing the acts of the prayer. Some scholars said that in the latter case, they pray only one Rak`ah, for Ibn `Abbas narrated, “By the words of your Prophet , Allah has ordained the prayer of four Rak`ah while residing, two Rak`ah during travel, and one Rak`ah during fear.” Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah recorded it. This is also the view of Ahmad bin Hanbal. Al-Mundhiri said, “This is the saying of `Ata’, Jabir, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Al-Hakam, Qatadah and Hammad; and Tawus and Ad-Dahhak also prefered it.” Abu `Asim Al-`Abadi mentioned that Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Marwazi said the Fajr prayer also becomes one Rak`ah during fear. This is also the opinion of Ibn Hazm. Ishaq bin Rahwayh said, “When a battle is raging, one Rak`ah during which you nod your head is sufficient for you. If you are unable, then one prostration is sufficient, because the prostration is remembrance of Allah.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu `Ayyash Az-Zuraqi said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah in the area of `Usfan (a well known place near Makkah), when the idolators met us under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, and they were between us and the Qiblah. The Messenger of Allah led us in Zuhr prayer, and the idolators said, `They were busy with something during which we had a chance to attack them.’ They then said, `Next, there will come a prayer (`Asr) that is dearer to them than their children and themselves.’ However, Jibril came down with these Ayat between the prayers of Zuhr and `Asr,

When thou (O Apostle) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer,

When the time for prayer came, the Messenger of Allah commanded Muslims to hold their weapons and he made us stand in two lines behind him. When he bowed, we all bowed behind him. When he raised his head, we all raised our heads. The Prophet then prostrated with the line that was behind him while the rest stood in guard. When they finished with the prostration and stood up, the rest sat and performed prostration, while those who performed it stood up in guard after the two lines exchanged position. The Prophet then bowed and they all bowed after him, then raised their heads after he raised his head. Then the Prophet performed prostration with the line that was behind him, while the rest stood in guard. When those who made prostration sat, the rest prostrated. The Prophet then performed the Taslim and ended the prayer. The Messenger of Allah performed this prayer twice, once in `Usfan and once in the land of Banu Sulaym.”’ This is the narration recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, and it has an authentic chain of narration and many other texts to support it. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Once the Prophet led the Fear prayer and the people stood behind him. He said Allahu-Akbar and the people said the same. He bowed and some of them bowed. Then he prostrated and they also prostrated. Then he stood for the second Rak`ah and those who had prayed the first Rak`ah left and guarded their brothers. The second party joined him and performed bowing and prostration with him. All the people were in prayer, but they were guarding one another during the prayer.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah led them in the Fear prayer. A group of them stood before him and a group behind him. The Prophet led those who were behind him with one Rak`ah and two prostrations. They then moved to the position of those who did not pray, while the others stood in their place, and the Messenger of Allah performed one Rak`ah and two prostrations and then said the Salam. Therefore, the Prophet prayed two Rak`ah while they prayed one. An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith, while Muslim collected other wordings for it. Collectors of the Sahih, Sunan and Musnad collections recorded this in a Hadith from Jabir. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Salim said that his father said,

When thou (O Apostle) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer,

refers to the Fear prayer. The Messenger of Allah led one group and prayed one Rak`ah, while the second group faced the enemy. Then the second group that faced the enemy came and Allah’s Messenger led them, praying one Rak`ah, and then said the Salam. Each of the two groups then stood up and prayed one more Rak`ah each (while the other group stood in guard).” The Group collected this Hadith with Ma`mar in its chain of narrators. This Hadith also has many other chains of narration from several Companions, and Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah collected these various narrations, as did Ibn Jarir. As for the command to hold the weapons during the Fear prayer, a group of scholars said that it is obligatory according to the Ayah. What testifies to this is that Allah said;

But there is no blame on you if ye put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because ye are ill; but take (every) precaution for yourselves.

meaning, so that when necessary, you will be able to get to your weapons easily,

For the Unbelievers God hath prepared a humiliating punishment.

47) 4:104-And slacken not in following up the enemy: If ye are suffering hardships, they are suffering similar hardships; but ye have Hope from God, while they have none. And God is full of knowledge and wisdom.

And slacken not in following up the enemy:

means, do not weaken your resolve in pursuit of your enemy. Rather, pursue them vigorously, fight them and be wary of them.

If ye are suffering hardships, they are suffering similar hardships;

meaning, just as you suffer from injuries and death, the same happens to the enemy. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(If you suffer a harm, be sure a similar harm has struck the others). Allah then said,

but ye have Hope from God, while they have none.

meaning, you and they are equal regarding the injuries and pain that you suffer from. However, you hope for Allah’s reward, victory and aid, just as He has promised you in His Book and by the words of his Messenger . Surely, Allah’s promise is true. On the other hand, your enemies do not have hope for any of this. So, it is you, not they, who should be eager to fight so that you establish the Word of Allah and raise it high.

And God is full of knowledge and wisdom.

means, He is most knowledgeable and wise in all what He decides, decrees, wills and acts on concerning various worldly and religious ordainments, and He is worthy of praise in all conditions.

48) 5:033-The punishment of those who wage war against God and His Apostle, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter;

(5:032). Because of that, We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land – it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. And indeed, there came to them Our Messengers with Al-Bayyinat, even then after that many of them continued to exceed the limits in the land!)

Allah says, because the son of Adam killed his brother in transgression and aggression,

(We ordained for the Children of Israel…) meaning, We legislated for them and informed them,

(that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land – it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind.) The Ayah states, whoever kills a soul without justification — such as in retaliation for murder or for causing mischief on earth — will be as if he has killed all mankind, because there is no difference between one life and another.

(and if anyone saved a life…) by preventing its blood from being shed and believing in its sanctity, then all people will have been saved from him, so,

(it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind.) Al-A`mash and others said that Abu Salih said that Abu Hurayrah said, “I entered on `Uthman when he was under siege in his house and said, `I came to give you my support. Now, it is good to fight (defending you) O Leader of the Faithful!’ He said, `O Abu Hurayrah! Does it please you that you kill all people, including me’ I said, `No.’ He said, `If you kill one man, it is as if you killed all people. Therefore, go back with my permission for you to leave. May you receive your reward and be saved from burden.’ So I went back and did not fight.”’ `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “It is as Allah has stated,

(if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land – it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind.) Saving life in this case occurs by not killing a soul that Allah has forbidden. So this is the meaning of saving the life of all mankind, for whoever forbids killing a soul without justification, the lives of all people will be saved from him.” Similar was said by Mujahid;

(And if anyone saved a life…) means, he refrains from killing a soul. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah’s statement,

(it would be as if he killed all mankind. .) means, “Whoever kills one soul that Allah has forbidden killing, is just like he who kills all mankind.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “He who allows himself to shed the blood of a Muslim, is like he who allows shedding the blood of all people. He who forbids shedding the blood of one Muslim, is like he who forbids shedding the blood of all people.” In addition, Ibn Jurayj said that Al-A`raj said that Mujahid commented on the Ayah,

(it would be as if he killed all mankind,) “He who kills a believing soul intentionally, Allah makes the Fire of Hell his abode, He will become angry with him, and curse him, and has prepared a tremendous punishment for him, equal to if he had killed all people, his punishment will still be the same.” Ibn Jurayj said that Mujahid said that the Ayah,

(and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind.) means, “He who does not kill anyone, then the lives of people are safe from him.”

Allah said,

(And indeed, there came to them Our Messengers with Al-Bayyinat,) meaning, clear evidences, signs and proofs,

(even then after that many of them continued to exceed the limits in the land!) This Ayah chastises and criticizes those who commit the prohibitions, after knowing that they are prohibited from indulging in them. The Jews of Al-Madinah, such as Banu Qurayzah, An-Nadir and Qaynuqa`, used to fight along with either Khazraj or Aws, when war would erupt between them during the time of Jahiliyyah. When these wars would end, the Jews would ransom those who were captured and pay the blood money for those who were killed. Allah criticized them for this practice in Surat Al-Baqarah,

(And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not your (people’s) blood, nor turn out your own people from their dwellings. Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bear witness. After this, it is you who kill one another and drive out a party of your own from their homes, assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their expulsion was forbidden to you. Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject the rest Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.) (2:84-85)

Allah said next,

(5:033)The punishment of those who wage war against God and His Apostle, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land:

`Wage war’ mentioned here means, oppose and contradict, and it includes disbelief, blocking roads and spreading fear in the fairways. Mischief in the land refers to various types of evil. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ikrimah and Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that the Ayat,

The punishment of those who wage war against God and His Apostle,

until,

(5:034-Allah is Of-Forgiving, Most Merciful,) “Were revealed about the idolators. Therefore, the Ayah decrees that, whoever among them repents before you apprehend them, then you have no right to punish them. This Ayah does not save a Muslim from punishment if he kills, causes mischief in the land or wages war against Allah and His Messenger and then joins rank with the disbelievers, before the Muslims are able to catch him. He will still be liable for punishment for the crimes he committed.” Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i recorded that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

The punishment of those who wage war against God and His Apostle, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is:

“Was revealed concerning the idolators, those among them who repent before being apprehended, they will still be liable for punishment for the crimes they committed.” The correct opinion is that this Ayah is general in meaning and includes the idolators and all others who commit the types of crimes the Ayah mentioned. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Qilabah `Abdullah bin Zayd Al-Jarmi, said that Anas bin Malik said, “Eight people of the `Ukl tribe came to the Messenger of Allah and gave him their pledge to follow Islam. Al-Madinah’s climate did not suit them and they became sick and complained to Allah’s Messenger . So he said,

(Go with our shephard to be treated by the milk and urine of his camels.) So they went as directed, and after they drank from the camels’ milk and urine, they became healthy, and they killed the shepherd and drove away all the camels. The news reached the Prophet and he sent (men) in their pursuit and they were captured. He then ordered that their hands and feet be cut off (and it was done), and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron. Next, they were put in the sun until they died.” This is the wording of Muslim. In another narration for this Hadith, it was mentioned that these people were from the tribes of `Ukl or `Uraynah. Another narration reported that these people were put in the Harrah area (of Al-Madinah), and when they asked for water, no water was given to them. Allah said,

execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said about this Ayah, `He who takes up arms in Muslim land and spreads fear in the fairways and is captured, the Muslim Leader has the choice to either have him killed, crucified or cut off his hands and feet.” Similar was said by Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Mujahid, `Ata’, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and Ad-Dahhak, as Abu Ja`far Ibn Jarir recorded. This view is supported by the fact that the word Aw (or), indicates a choice. As Allah said,

(The penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka`bah, of an eatable animal equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; or, for expiation, he should feed the poor, or its equivalent in fasting.)(5:95) Allah said,

(And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a ransom of either fasting or giving charity or offering a sacrifice.) and,

(…for its expiation feed ten of the poor, on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families, or clothe them, or free a slave.) All of these Ayat offer a choice, just as the Ayah above. As for Allah’s statement,

or exile from the land

some said that it means, he is actively pursued until he is captured, and thus receives his prescribed punishment, or otherwise he escapes from the land of Islam, as Ibn Jarir recorded from Ibn `Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Az-Zuhri, Al-Layth bin Sa`d and Malik bin Anas. Some said that the Ayah means these people are expelled to another land, or to another state by the Muslims authorities. Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Ash-Sha`tha’, Al-Hasan, Az-Zuhri, Ad-Dahhak and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that he is expelled, but not outside of the land of Islam, while others said that he is to be imprisoned. Allah’s statement,

that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter;

means, the punishment We prescribed, killing these aggressors, crucifying them, cutting off their hands and feet on opposite sides, or expelling them from the land is a disgrace for them among mankind in this life, along with the tremendous torment Allah has prepared for them in the Hereafter. This view supports the opinion that these Ayat were revealed about the idolators. As for Muslims, in his Sahih, Muslim recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, “The Messenger of Allah took the same pledge from us that he also took from women: That we do not associate anything with Allah in worship, we do not steal, commit adultery, or kill our children, and that we do not spread falsehood about each other. He said that he who keeps this pledge, then his reward will be with Allah. He who falls into shortcomings and was punished, then this will be his expiation. And those whose errors were covered by Allah, then their matter is for Allah: If He wills, He will punish them and If He wills, He will pardon them.” `Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

He who sins in this life and was punished for it, then Allah is far more just than to combine two punishments on His servant. He who commits an error in this life and Allah hides this error and pardons him, then Allah is far more generous than to punish the servant for something that He has already pardoned.) iRecorded by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and At-Tirmidhi who said, “Hasan Gharib.”Al-Hafiz Ad-Daraqutni was asked about this Hadith, and he said that it was related to the Prophet in some narrations, and it was related to the Companions in others, and that this narration from the Prophet is Sahih. Ibn Jarir commented on Allah’s statement,

that is their disgrace in this world,

“Meaning, shame, humiliation, punishment, contempt and torment in this life, before the Hereafter,

and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter;

if they do not repent from these errors until death overcomes them. In this case, they will be stricken by the punishment that We prescribed for them in this life and the torment that We prepared for them therein,

and a heavy punishment

in the Fire of Jahannam.”

(5:034. Except for those who (having fled away and then) came back (as Muslims) with repentance before they fall into your power; in that case, know that Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

(Except for those who (having fled away and then) came back (as Muslims) with repentance before they fall into your power; in that case, know that Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) This Ayah is clear in its indication that it applies to the idolators. As for the Muslims who commit this crime and repent before they are apprehended, the punishment of killing, crucifixion and cutting the limbs will be waved. The practice of the Companions in this regard is that all of the punishments prescribed in this case will be waved, as is apparent from the wording of the Ayah. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ash-Sha`bi said, “Harithah bin Badr At-Tamimi was living in Al-Basrah, and he committed the crime of mischief in the land. So he talked to some men from Quraysh, such as Al-Hasan bin `Ali, Ibn `Abbas and `Abdullah bin Ja`far, and they talked to `Ali about him so that he would grant him safety, but `Ali refused. So Harithah went to Sa`id bin Qays Al-Hamadani who kept him in his house and went to `Ali, saying, `O Leader of the Faithful! What about those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and cause mischief in the land’ So he recited the Ayah until he reached,

(Except for those who (having fled away and them) came back cas Muslims) with repentance before they fall into your power. ) So `Ali wrote a document that granted safety, and Sa`id bin Qays said, `This is for Harithah bin Badr.”’ Ibn Jarir recorded this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Amir Ash-Sha`bi said, “A man from Murad came to Abu Musa, while he was the governor of Al-Kufah during the reign of `Uthman, and said to him after he offered the obligatory prayer, `O Abu Musa! I seek your help. I am so-and-so from Murad and I waged war against Allah and His Messenger and caused mischief in the land. I repented before you had any authority over me.’ Abu Musa proclaimed, `This is so-and-so, who had waged war against Allah and His Messenger and caused mischief in the land, and he repented before we had authority over him. Therefore, anyone who meets him, should deal with him in a better way. If he is saying the truth, then this is the path of those who say the truth. If he is saying a lie, his sins will destroy him. So the man remained idle for as long as Allah willed, but he later rose against the leaders, and Allah punished him for his sins and he was killed.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Musa bin Ishaq Al-Madani said that `Ali Al-Asadi waged war, blocked the roads, shed blood and plundered wealth. The leaders and the people alike, sought to capture him, but they could not do that until he came after he repented, after he heard a man reciting the Ayah,

(O My servants who have transgressed against themselves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah, verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) So he said to that man, “O servant of Allah! Recite it again.” So he recited it again, and `Ali put down his sword and went to Al-Madinah in repentance, arriving during the night. He washed up and went to the Masjid of the Messenger of Allah and prayed the dawn prayer. He sat next to Abu Hurayrah amidst his companions. In the morning, the people recognized him and went after him. He said, “You have no way against me. I came in repentance before you had any authority over me.” Abu Hurayrah said, “He has said the truth,” and he held his hand and went to Marwan bin Al-Hakam, who was the governor of Al-Madinah during the reign of Mu`awiyah. Abu Hurayrah said, “This is `Ali and he came in repentance and you do not have a way against him, nor can you have him killed.” So `Ali was absolved of punishment and remained on his repentance and went to the sea to perform Jihad in Allah’s cause. The Muslims met the Romans in battle, and the Muslims brought the ship `Ali was in to one of the Roman ships, and `Ali crossed to that ship and the Romans escaped from him to the other side of the ship, and the ship capsized and they all drowned.”

49) 5:035-O ye who believe! Do your duty to God, seek the means of approach unto Him, and strive with might and main in his cause: that ye may prosper.

Allah commands His faithful servants to fear Him in Taqwa, which if mentioned along with acts of obedience, it means to refrain from the prohibitions and the prohibited matters. Allah said next,

seek the means of approach unto Him,

Sufyan Ath-Thawri said that Talhah said that `Ata’ said that Ibn `Abbas said that Wasilah means `the means of approach’. Mujahid, Abu Wa’il, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, `Abdullah bin Kathir, As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and others gave the same meaning for Wasilah. Qatadah said that the Ayah means, “Seek the means of approach to Him by obeying Him and performing the acts that please Him.”

(Those whom they call upon seek a means of access to their Lord (Allah).) (17:57) Wasilah is a means of approach to achieve something, and it is also used to refer to the highest grade in Paradise, and it is the grade of the Messenger of Allah , his residence and the nearest grade in Paradise to Allah’s Throne. Al-Bukhari recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever, after hearing to the Adhan says, “O Allah! Lord of this perfect call and of the regular prayer which is going to be established! Grant Muhammad the Wasilah and superiority and send him (on the Day of Judgment) to the praiseworthy station which You have promised him,” then intercession from me will be permitted for him on the Day of Resurrection.) Muslim recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As said that he heard the Prophet saying,

(When you hear the Mu’adhdhin, repeat what he says, and then ask for Salah (blessing, mercy from Allah) for me. Verily, whoever asks for Salah for me, then Allah will grant ten Salah to him. Then, ask for the Wasilah for me, for it is a grade in Paradise that only one servant of Allah deserves, and I hope that I am that servant. Verily, whoever asks (Allah) for Wasilah for me, he will earn the right of my intercession.) Allah said,

and strive with might and main in his cause: that ye may prosper.

After Allah commanded Muslims to avoid the prohibitions and to work towards obedience, He commanded them to fight against their enemies, the disbelievers and idolators who have deviated from the straight path and abandoned the correct religion. Allah encouraged the believers by reminding them of the unending success and great happiness that He prepared for them for the Day of Resurrection, which will never change or decrease for those who join Jihad in His cause. They will remain in the lofty rooms of Paradise that are safe and beautiful. Those who live in these dwellings will always be comfortable and will never be miserable, living, never dying, and their clothes will never grow thin, nor will their youth ever end.

50) 5:082-Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, “We are Christians”: because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.

Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and others said that these Ayat were revealed concerning a delegation that An-Najashi (King of Ethiopia) sent to the Prophet in order to hear his words and observe his qualities. When the delegation met with the Prophet and he recited the Qur’an to them, they embraced Islam, cried and were humbled. Then they returned to An-Najashi and told him what happened. `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah commented, “They were Ethiopians who embraced Islam when the Muslims who migrated to Ethiopia resided among them.” Qatadah said, “They were some followers of the religion of `Isa, son of Maryam, who when they saw Muslims and heard the Qur’an, they became Muslims without hesitation.” Ibn Jarir said that these Ayat were revealed concerning some people who fit this description, whether they were from Ethiopia or otherwise. Allah said,

Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans;

This describes the Jews, since their disbelief is that of rebellion, defiance, opposing the truth, belittling other, people and degrading the scholars. This is why the Jews – may Allah’s continued curses descend on them until the Day of Resurrection – killed many of their Prophets and tried to kill the Messenger of Allah several times, as well as, performing magic spells against him and poisoning him. They also incited their likes among the polytheists against the Prophet . Allah’s statement,

and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, “We are Christians”:

refers to those who call themselves Christians, who follow the religion of the Messiah and the teachings of his Injil. These people are generally more tolerant of Islam and its people, because of the mercy and kindness that their hearts acquired through part of the Messiah’s religion. In another Ayah, Allah said;

(And We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him, compassion, mercy, and monasticism…) (57:27). In their book is the saying; “He who strikes you on the right cheek, then turn the left cheek for him.” And fighting was prohibited in their creed, and this is why Allah said,

because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.

This means that among them are Qissisin (priests). The word Ruhban refers to one dedicated to worship. Allah said,

because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.

This describes them with knowledge, worship and humbleness, along with following the truth and fairness.

51) 8:001-They ask thee concerning (things taken as) spoils of war. Say: “(such) spoils are at the disposal of God and the Apostle: So fear God, and keep straight the relations between yourselves: Obey God and His Apostle, if ye do believe.”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Anfal are the spoils of war.” Al-Bukhari also recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “I said to Ibn `Abbas, `Surat Al-Anfal’ He said, `It was revealed concerning (the battle of) Badr.”’ `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported, as Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas without a chain of narration, that Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Anfal are the spoils of war; they were for the Messenger of Allah, and none had a share in them.” Similar was said by Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata’, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Muqatil bin Hayyan, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and several others. It was also said that the Nafl (singular for Anfal) refers to the portion of the spoils of war that the commander gives to some of the fighters after dividing the bulk of the spoils. It was also said that Anfal refers to the Khumus; one-fifth of the captured goods after four-fifths are divided (between the fighters). It was also said that the Anfal refers to the Fay’, the possessions taken from the disbelievers without fighting, and the animals, servants or whatever other possessions escape from the disbelievers to Muslims.

Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ali bin Salih bin Hay said: “It has reached me that,

They ask thee concerning (things taken as) spoils of war.

is about the divisions. This refer to what the Imam gives to some squads in addition to what is divided among the rest of the soldiers.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Sa`d bin Malik said, “I said, `O Allah’s Messenger, Allah has brought comfort to me today over the idolators, so grant me this sword.’ He said,

(This sword is neither yours nor mine; put it down.) So I put it down, but said to myself, `The Prophet might give this sword to another man who did not fight as fiercely as I did.’ I heard a man calling me from behind and I said, `Has Allah revealed something in my case’ The Prophet said,

(You asked me to give you the sword, but it is not for me to decide about. However, it has been granted to me (by Allah), and I give it to you.) So Allah sent down this Ayah,

(They ask you about Al-Anfal. Say: “Al-Anfal are for Allah and the Messenger”).

Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i collected this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah said, “I asked `Ubadah about Al-Anfal and he said, `It was revealed about us, those who participated in (the battle of) Badr, when we disputed about An-Nafl and our dispute was not appealing. So Allah took Al-Anfal from us and gave it to the Messenger of Allah . The Messenger divided it equally among Muslims.”’

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah said that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, “We went with the Messenger of Allah to the battle of Badr. When the two armies met, Allah defeated the enemy and some of us pursued them inflicting utter defeat and casualties. Another group of us came to the battlefield collecting the spoils of war. Another group surrounded the Messenger of Allah , so that the enemy could not attack him suddenly. When it was night and the various army groups went back to our camp, some of those who collected the spoils said, `We collected it, so none else will have a share in it.’ Those who went in pursuit of the enemy said, `No, you have no more right to it than us. We kept the enemy away from the war spoils and defeated them.’ Those who surrounded the Messenger of Allah to protect him said, `You have no more right to it than us, we surrounded the Messenger of Allah for fear that the enemy might conduct a surprise attack against him, so we were busy.’ The Ayah,

They ask thee concerning (things taken as) spoils of war. Say: “(such) spoils are at the disposal of God and the Apostle: So fear God, and keep straight the relations between yourselves:

was revealed and the Messenger of Allah divided the Anfal equally between Muslims.”’

(And Allah’s Messenger would give a fourth for Anfal when there was a surprise attack in the land of the enemy, and when there was a confrontation then a third to the people who returned).

The Prophet used to dislike the Anfal and encouraged strong fighters to give some of their share to weak Muslim fighters. At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah collected a similar narration for this Hadith, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan”.

Allah said,

So fear God, and keep straight the relations between yourselves:

The Ayah commands, have Taqwa of Allah in all your affairs, settle matters of differences between you, do not wrong each other, do not dispute, and do not differ. Certainly, the guidance and knowledge that Allah has granted you is better than what you are disputing about ()such as Al-Anfal),

Obey God and His Apostle,

in the division that the Messenger makes according to Allah’s order. The Prophet only divided according to what Allah ordained, which is perfectly just and fair. Ibn `Abbas commented on this Ayah, “This is a command from Allah and His Messenger to the believers, that they should have Taqwa of Allah and settle all matters of differences between them.” A similar statement was reported from Mujahid. As-Suddi also commented on Allah’s statement,

So fear God, and keep straight the relations between yourselves:

meaning “Do not curse each other.”

52) 8:005-Just as thy Lord ordered thee out of thy house in truth, even though a party among the Believers disliked it, 53) 8:007-Behold! God promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but God willed to justify the Truth according to His words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers; –

(8:005)Just as thy Lord ordered thee out

After Allah described the believers as fearing their Lord, resolving matters of dispute between themselves and obeying Allah and His Messenger , He then said here, “since you disputed about dividing war spoils and differed with each other about them, Allah took them away from you. He and His Messenger then divided them in truth and justice, thus ensuring continued benefit for all of you. Similarly, you disliked meeting the armed enemy in battle, who marched in support of their religion and to protect their caravan. You disliked fighting, so Allah decided that battle should occur and made you meet your enemy, without planning to do so on your part.’ This incident carried guidance, light, victory and triumph. Allah said;

(Jihad is ordained for you though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.) (2:216)

As-Suddi commented,

even though a party among the Believers disliked it,

(to meet (the armed) idolators.)

(8:006.Disputing with you concerning the truth after it was made manifest,)

Some have commented, “(Allah says:) they ask and argue with you about Al-Anfal just as they argued with you when you went out for the battle of Badr, saying, `You marched with us to confiscate the caravan. You did not inform us that there will be fighting and that we should prepare for it.”’

(8:007)but God willed to justify the Truth according to His words

Allah says, `He willed for you to meet the armed enemy (rather than the caravan) so that He makes you prevail above them and gain victory over them, making His religion apparent and Islam victorious and dominant above all religions. He has perfect knowledge of the consequences of all things, you are surrounded by His wise planning, although people only like what appears favorable to them,’

(Jihad (fighting in Allah’s cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you) (2:216).

(This is the caravan of Quraysh carrying their property, so march forth to intercept it, Allah might make it as war spoils for you.)

The people started mobilizing Muslims, although some of them did not mobilize, thinking that the Prophet would not have to fight. Abu Sufyan was cautiously gathering information on the latest news spying on travelers he met, out of fear for the caravan, especially upon entering the area of Hijaz (Western Arabia). Some travelers told him that Muhammad had mobilized his companions for his caravan. He was anxious and hired Damdam bin `Amr Al-Ghifari to go to Makkah and mobilize the Quraysh to protect their caravan, informing them that Muhammad had mobilized his Companions to intercept the caravan. Damdam bin `Amr went in a hurry to Makkah. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah marched with his companions until he reached a valley called Dhafiran. When he left the valley, he camped and was informed that the Quraysh had marched to protect their caravan. The Messenger of Allah consulted the people for advice and conveyed the news about Quraysh to them. Abu Bakr stood up and said something good, and so did `Umar. Al-Miqdad bin `Amr stood up and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! March to what Allah has commanded you, for we are with you. By Allah! We will not say to you what the Children of Israel said to Musa,

(“So go you and your Lord and fight you two, we are sitting right here”) ﴿5:24﴾. Rather, go you and Your Lord and fight, we will be fighting along with you both. By He Who has sent you with Truth! If you decide to take us to Birk-ul-Ghimad, we will fight along with you until you reach it.’ The Messenger of Allah said good words to Al-Miqdad and invoked Allah for his benefit. The Messenger of Allah again said,

(Give me your opinion, O people! wanting to hear from the Ansar. This is because the majority of the people with him then were the Ansar. When the Ansar gave the Prophet their pledge of obedience at Al-`Aqabah, they proclaimed, `O Allah’s Messenger! We are not bound by this pledge unless, and until, you arrive in our land. When you have arrived in our area, you are under our protection, and we shall protect you in the same manner we protect our children and wives.’ The Messenger of Allah feared that the Ansar might think that they are not obliged to support him except from his enemies who attack Al-Madinah, not to march with him to an enemy in other areas. When the Prophet said this, Sa`d bin Mu`adh asked him, `O Allah’s Messenger! Is it us whom you meant’ The Prophet answered in the positive. Sa`d said, `We have faith and believed in you, testified that what you brought is the truth, and gave you our pledges and promises of allegiance and obedience. Therefore, march, O Allah’s Messenger, for what Allah has commanded you. Verily, by He Who has sent you in Truth, if you decided to cross this sea (the Red Sea), we will follow you in it, and none among us would stay behind. We do not dislike that we meet our enemy tomorrow. Verily, we are patient in war, fierce in battle. May Allah make you witness what makes your eyes pleased with us. Therefore, march with us with the blessing of Allah.’ The Messenger of Allah was pleased with what Sa`d said and was encouraged by it. He proclaimed,

(March with the blessing of Allah and receive the good news. For Allah has indeed promised me one of the two camps (confiscating the caravan or defeating the Quraysh army). By Allah! It is as if I am now looking at the demise of the people (the Quraysh).)”

Al-`Awfi reported similar from Ibn `Abbas. As-Suddi, Qatadah, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam; and several others among the Salaf and later generations mentioned similarly, We have just summarized the story as Muhammad bin Ishaq briefed it.

54) 8:009-Remember ye implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you: “I will assist you with a thousand of the angels, ranks on ranks.”

Al-Bukhari wrote in the book of battles (in his Sahih) under “Chapter; Allah’s statement,

Remember ye implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you:

until,

(then verily, Allah is severe in punishment)” that Ibn Mas`ud said, “I was a witness to something that Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad did, that I would like more than almost anything else to have been the one who did it. Al-Miqdad came to the Prophet while he was invoking Allah against the idolators and proclaimed, `We will not say as the people of Musa said, “So go you and your Lord and fight you two.”

Rather, we will fight to your right, to your left, before you and behind you.’ I saw the Prophet’s face beaming with pleasure because of what Al-Miqdad said to him.” Al-Bukhari next narrated from Ibn `Abbas that on the day of Badr, the Prophet said,

(O Allah! I invoke You for Your covenant and promise (victory). O Allah! If You decide so (cause our defeat), You will not be worshipped.)

Abu Bakr held the Prophet’s hand and said, “Enough.” The Prophet went out proclaiming,

(Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.)

An-Nasa’i also collected this Hadith. Allah’s statement

with a thousand of the angels, ranks on ranks.”

means, they follow each other in succession, according to Harun bin Hubayrah who narrated this from Ibn `Abbas about,

(with a thousand of the angels Murdifin)

(Murdifin), meaning each behind the other in succession. `Ali bin Abi Talhah Al-Walibi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah supported His Prophet and the believers with a thousand angels, five hundred under the leadership of Jibril on one side and five hundred under the leadership of Mika’il on another side.” Imams Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari and Muslim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that `Umar said, “While a Muslim man was pursuing an idolator (during the battle of Badr), he heard the sound of a whip above him and a rider saying, `Come, O Hayzum!’ Then he looked at the idolator, who fell to the ground. When he investigated, he found that the idolator’s nose had wound and his face torn apart, just as if he received a strike from a whip on it, and the entire face had turned green. The Ansari man came to the Messenger of Allah and told him what had happened and the Messenger replied,

(You have said the truth, that was from the reinforcements from the third heaven.)

The Muslims killed seventy (pagans) in that battle and captured another seventy.

Al-Bukhari also wrote a chapter in his Sahih about the participation of the angels in Badr. He collected a Hadith from Rifa`h bin Rafi `Az-Zuraqi, who participated in Badr, Jibril came to the Prophet and asked him, “How honored are those who participated in Badr among you” The Prophet said,

(Among the best Muslims.) Jibril said, “This is the case with the angels who participated in Badr.” Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith. At-Tabarani also collected it in Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir, but from Rafi` bin Khadij, which is an apparent mistake. The correct narration is from Rifa`h, as Al-Bukhari recorded it. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said to `Umar, when `Umar suggested that the Prophet have Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah executed,

(He )Hatib( participated in Badr. How do you know that Allah has not looked at the people of Badr and proclaimed, `Do whatever you want, for I have forgiven you.’)

55) 8:012-Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): “I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instil terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them.”

Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): “I am with you: give firmness to the Believers:

This is a hidden favor that Allah has made known to the believers, so that they thank Him and are grateful to Him for it. Allah, glorified, exalted, blessed and praised be He, has revealed to the angels — whom He sent to support His Prophet, religion and believing group — to make the believers firmer. Allah’s statement,

I will instil terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers:

means, `you — angels — support the believers, strengthen their (battle) front against their enemies, thus, implementing My command to you. I will cast fear, disgrace and humiliation over those who defied My command and denied My Messenger,

smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them.”

strike them on their foreheads to tear them apart and over the necks to cut them off, and cut off their limbs, hands and feet. It was said that,

above their necks

refers to striking the forehead, or the neck, according to Ad-Dahhak and `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi. In support of the latter, Allah commanded the believers,

So, when you meet (in fight Jihad in Allah’s cause) those who disbelieve, smite (their) necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, take them as captives).) (47:4)

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, “In the aftermath of Badr, the people used to recognize whomever the angels killed from those whom they killed, by the wounds over their necks, fingers and toes, because those parts had a mark as if they were branded by fire.” Allah said,

smite all their finger-tips off them.”

Ibn Jarir commented that this Ayah commands, “O believers! Strike every limb and finger on the hands and feet of your (disbelieving) enemies.” Al-`Awfi reported, that Ibn `Abbas said about the battle of Badr that Abu Jahl said, “Do not kill them (the Muslims), but capture them so that you make known to them what they did, their ridiculing your religion and shunning Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza (two idols).” Allah than sent down to the angels,

“I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instil terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them.”

In that battle, Abu Jahl (may Allah curse him) was killed along with sixty-nine men. `Uqbah bin Abu Mua`it was captured and then killed, thus bring the death toll of the pagans to seventy,

(8:013.This is because they defied and disobeyed Allah and His Messenger.) joining the camp that defied Allah and His Messenger not including themselves in the camp of Allah’s Law and faith in Him. Allah said,

(And whoever defies and disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then verily, Allah is severe in punishment.) for He will crush whoever defies and disobeys Him. Nothing ever escapes Allah’s grasp nor can anything ever stand against His anger. Blessed and exalted He is, there is no true deity or Lord except Him.

(8:014.This is (the torment), so taste it; and surely, for the disbelievers is the torment of the Fire.)

This Ayah addresses the disbeliever, saying, taste this torment and punishment in this life and know that the torment of the Fire in the Hereafter is for the disbelievers.

56) 8:015-O ye who believe! when ye meet the Unbelievers in hostile array, never turn your backs to them. 57) 8:016-If any do turn his back to them on such a day – unless it be in a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he draws on himself the wrath of God, and his abode is Hell, – an evil refuge (indeed)!

Allah said, while warning against fleeing from the battlefield and threatening those who do it with the Fire,

(8:015)O ye who believe! when ye meet the Unbelievers in hostile array,

when you get near the enemy and march towards them,

never turn your backs to them.

do not run away from battle and leave your fellow Muslims behind,

(8:016)If any do turn his back to them on such a day – unless it be in a stratagem of war,

The Ayah says, whoever flees from the enemy by way of planning to pretend that he is afraid of the enemy, so that they follow him and he takes the chance and returns to kill the enemy, then there is no sin on him. This is the explanation of Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi. Ad-Dahhak also commented, “Whoever went ahead of his fellow Muslims to investigate the strength of the enemy and make use of it,

or to retreat to a troop (of his own)-

meaning he leaves from here to another troop of Muslims to assist them or be assisted by them. So that is allowed for him, or even during the battle if he flees from his brigade to the commander. Or going to the grand Imam, would also fall under this permission.”

This is how it was reported by Muhammad bin Sirin from `Umar. In the report of Abu `Uthman An-Nahdi from `Umar, he said: When Abu `Ubayd was fighting, `Umar said, “O people! We are your troop.” Mujahid said that `Umar said, “We are the troop of every Muslim.” Abdul-Malik bin `Umayr reported from `Umar, “O people! Don’t be confused over this Ayah, it was only about the day of Badr, and we are a troop for every Muslim.” Ibn Abi Hatim) recorded (that Nafi` questioned Ibn `Umar, “We are people who are not stationary when fighting our enemy, and we may not know where our troop is, be it that of our Imam or our army.”

So he replied, “The troop is Allah’s Messenger .” I said but Allah said,

when ye meet the Unbelievers in hostile array,

to the end of the Ayah . So he said; “This Ayah was about Badr, not before it nor after it.”

Ad-Dahhak commented that Allah’s statement,

or to retreat to a troop (of his own)-

refers to “Those who retreat to the Messenger of Allah and his Companions (when the Messenger was alive), and those who retreat in the present time to his commander or companions.” However, if one flees for any other reason than those mentioned here, then it is prohibited and considered a major sin. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(“Shun the seven great destructive sins.”)

The people inquired, “O Allah’s Messenger! What are they” He said,

((They are:) Joining others in worship with Allah, magic taking life which Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law), consuming Riba, consuming an orphan’s wealth, fleeing the battlefield at the time of fighting, and false accusation to chaste women, who never even think of anything touching chastity and are good believers.)

This is why Allah said here,

he draws on himself

and returned with,

the wrath of God, and his abode

destination, and dwelling place on the Day of Return,

is Hell, – an evil refuge (indeed)!

58) 8:017-It is not ye who slew them; it was God: when thou threwest (a handful of dust), it was not thy act, but God’s: in order that He might test the Believers by a gracious trial from Himself: for God is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).

Allah states that He creates the actions that the servants perform and that whatever good actions they take, it is He Who should be praised for them, for He directed and helped them perform these actions. Allah said,

It is not ye who slew them; it was God:

meaning, it is not because of your power and strength that you killed the pagans, who were many while you were few. Rather, it is He Who gave you victory over them, just as He said in another Ayah,

(And Allah has already made you victorious at Badr, when you were a weak little force.) (3:123), and,

(Truly, Allah has given you victory on many battlefields, and on the day of Hunayn when you rejoiced at your great number, but it availed you naught and the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for you, then you turned back in flight.) (9:25)

Allah, the Exalted and Ever High, states that victory does not depend on numbers or collecting weapons and shields. Rather, victory is from Him, Exalted He is.

(How often has a small group overcome a mighty host by Allah’s leave” And Allah is with the patient.) (2:249)

Allah then mentioned the handful of sand that His Prophet threw at the disbelievers during the day of Badr, when he went out of his bunker. While in the bunker, the Prophet invoked Allah humbly and expressing his neediness before Allah. He then threw a handful of sand at the disbelievers and said,

(Humiliated be their faces.) He then commanded his Companions to start fighting with sincerity and they did. Allah made this handful of sand enter the eyes of the idolators, each one of them were struck by some of it and it distracted them making each of them busy. Allah said,

when thou threwest (a handful of dust), it was not thy act, but God’s:

Therefore, it is Allah Who made the sand reach their eyes and busied them with it, not you (O Muhammad) .

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Muhammad bin Ja`far bin Az-Zubayr narrated to him that `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said about Allah’s statement,

in order that He might test the Believers by a gracious trial from Himself:

“So that the believers know Allah’s favor for them by giving them victory over their enemy, even though their enemy was numerous, while they were few. They should thus know His right and express gratitude for His favor on them.” Similar was said by Ibn Jarir. It is stated in a Hadith,

(Every trail (from Allah) is a favor for us.)

Allah said next,

for God is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).

Allah hears the supplication and knows those who deserve help and triumph. Allah said,

(8:018.This (is the fact) and surely Allah weakens the deceitful plots of the disbelievers.) This is more good news, aside from the victory that the believers gained. Allah informed them that He will weaken the plots of the disbelievers in the future, degrade them and make everything they have perish and be destroyed, all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

59) 8:039-And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily God doth see all that they do. 60) 8:040-If they refuse, be sure that God is your Protector – the best to protect and the best to help.

Allah commands His Prophet Muhammad ,

(8:038.Say to those who have disbelieved, if they cease…) the disbelief, defiance and stubbornness they indulge in, and embrace Islam, obedience and repentance.

(their past will be forgiven.) along with their sins and errors. It is recorded in the Sahih Al-Bukhari that Abu Wa’il said that Ibn Mas’ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(He who becomes good in his Islam, will not be punished for what he has committed during Jahiliyyah (before Islam). He who becomes bad in his Islam, will face a punishment for his previous and latter deeds.)

It is also recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,

(“Islam erases what occurred before it, and repentance erases what occurs before it.”)

Allah said,

(But if they return,) and remain on their ways,

(then the examples of those (punished) before them have already preceded.) (8:38) meaning, Our way with the nations of old is that when they disbelieve and rebel, We send down to them immediate torment and punishment.

(8:039)And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God altogether and everywhere;

Al-Bukhari recorded that a man came to Ibn `Umar and said to him, “O Abu `Abdur-Rahman! Why do you not implement what Allah said in His Book,

(And if two parties (or groups) among the believers fall to fighting…)(49:9). What prevents you from fighting as Allah mentioned in His Book” Ibn `Umar said, “O my nephew! I prefer that I be reminded with this Ayah rather than fighting, for in the latter case, I will be reminded by the Ayah in which Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, said,

(And whoever kills a believer intentionally…) (4:93)”

The man said, “Allah, the Exalted, said,

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression,

Ibn `Umar said, “We did that during the time of the Messenger of Allah, when Islam was weak and the man would be tried in religion, either tormented to death or being imprisoned. When Islam became stronger and widespread, there was no more Fitnah.” When the man realized that Ibn `Umar would not agree to what he is saying, he asked him, “What do you say about `Ali and `Uthman” Ibn `Umar replied, “What do I say about `Ali and `Uthman! As for `Uthman, Allah has forgiven him, but you hate that Allah forgives him. As for `Ali, he is the cousin of the Messenger of Allah and his son-in-law,” and he pointed with his hand saying, “And this is his house over there.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “Ibn `Umar came to us and was asked, “What do you say about fighting during Fitnah” Ibn `Umar said, “Do you know what Fitnah refers to Muhammad was fighting against the idolators, and at that time, attending (or residing with) the idolators was a Fitnah (trial in religion). It is nothing like what you are doing, fighting to gain leadership!” All these narrations were collected by Al-Bukhari, may Allah the Exalted grant him His mercy. Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah,

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression,

“So that there is no more Shirk.’” Similar was said by Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Zayd bin Aslam. Muhammad bin Ishaq said that he was informed from Az-Zuhri, from `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr and other scholars that

until there is no more tumult or oppression,

(until there is no more Fitnah) the Fitnah mentioned here means, until no Muslim is persecuted so that he abandons his religion. Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

and there prevail justice and faith in God altogether and everywhere;

“So that Tawhid is practiced in sincerity with Allah.” Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ibn Jurayj said,

and there prevail justice and faith in God altogether and everywhere;

“So that La ilaha illa-llah is proclaimed.” Muhammad bin Ishaq also commented on this Ayah, “So that Tawhid is practiced in sincerity towards Allah, without Shirk, all the while shunning all rivals who (are being worshipped) besides Him.”

`Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said about,

and there prevail justice and faith in God altogether and everywhere;

“So that there is no more Kufr (disbelief) with your religion remains.” There is a Hadith collected in the Two Sahihs that testifies to this explanation. The Messenger of Allah said,

(I was commanded to fight against the people until they proclaim, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ If and when they say it, they will preserve their blood and wealth from me, except for its right (Islamic penal code), and their reckoning is with Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.)

Also, in the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari said, “The Messenger of Allah was asked about a man who fights because he is courageous, in prejudice with his people, or to show off. Which of these is for the cause of Allah He said,

(Whoever fights so that Allah’s Word is the supreme, is in the cause of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.)”

Allah said next,

but if they cease,

and desist from their Kufr as a result of your fighting them, even though you do not know the true reasons why they did so,

verily God doth see all that they do.

Allah said in similar Ayah,

(But if they repent and perform the Salah, and give Zakah, then leave their way free.) (9:5),

(…then they are your brethren in religion.) (9:11), and,

(And fight them until there is no more Fitnah and the religion (worship) is for Allah (alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against the wrongdoers.) (2:193)

It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said to Usamah bin Zayd when he overpowered a man with his sword, after that man proclaimed that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah;

(Have you killed him after he proclaimed, `La Ilaha Illallah’ What would you do with regard to `La Ilaha Illallah’ on the Day of Resurrection.)

Usamah said, “O Allah’s Messenger! He only said it to save himself.” The Messenger replied,

(Did you cut his heart open)

The Messenger kept repeating,

(What would you do with regard to `La Ilaha Illallah’ on the Day of Resurrection) until Usamah said, “I wished I had embraced Islam only that day.” Allah said next,

(8:040)If they refuse, be sure that God is your Protector – the best to protect and the best to help.

Allah says, if the disbelievers persist in defying and fighting you, then know that Allah is your protector, master and supporter against your enemies. Verily, what an excellent protector and what an excellent supporter.

61) 8:041-And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to God, – and to the Apostle, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer, – if ye do believe in God and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Testing, – the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For God hath power over all things.

Allah explains the spoils of war in detail, as He has specifically allowed it for this honorable Ummah over all others. We should mention that the `Ghanimah’ refers to war spoils captured from the disbelievers, using armies and instruments of war. As for `Fai’, it refers to the property of the disbelievers that they forfeit in return for peace, what they leave behind when they die and have no one to inherit from them, and the Jizyah (tribute tax) and Khiraj (property tax). Allah said,

And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to God,

indicating that the one-fifth should be reserved and paid in full )to Muslim leaders( whether it was little or substantial, even a yarn and needle.

(And whosoever deceives (his companions over the booty), he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took (illegally). Then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.) (3:161)

Allah’s statement,

a fifth share is assigned to God, – and to the Apostle,

was explained by Ibn `Abbas, as Ad-Dahhak reported from him, “Whenever the Messenger of Allah sent an army, he used to divide the war booty they collected into five shares, reserving one-fifth and divided it into five shares.” Then he recited;

And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to God, – and to the Apostle,

Ibn Abbas said, “Allah’s statement,

a fifth share is assigned to God,

is inclusivez )of the Messenger’s share(, just as the following Ayah is inclusive )of Allah owning whatever is on the earth also(,

To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and on the earth)(2:284).” So He addressed the share of Allah and the share of His Messenger in the same statement.

Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Al-Hasan bin Muhammad bin Al-Hanifiyyah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ash-Sha`bi, `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah, `Abdullah bin Buraydah, Qatadah, Mughirah and several others, all said that the share designated for Allah and the Messenger is one and the same. Supporting this is what Imam Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi recorded, with a Sahih chain of narrators, that `Abdullah bin Shaqiq said that a man from Bilqin said, “I came to the Prophet when he was in Wadi Al-Qura inspecting a horse. I asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! What about the Ghanimah’ He said,

(Allah’s share is one fifth and four-fifths are for the army.)

I asked, `None of them has more right to it than anyone else’ He said,

(No. Even if you remove an arrow that pierced your flank, you have no more right to it than your Muslim brother.)”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdam bin Ma`dikarib Al-Kindi sat with `Ubadah bin As-Samit, Abu Ad-Darda’ and Al-Harith bin Mu`awiyah Al-Kindi, may Allah be pleased with them, reminding each other of the statements of the Messenger of Allah . Abu Ad-Darda’ said to `Ubadah, “O `Ubadah! What about the words of the Messenger of Allah during such and such battle, about the fifth (of the war booty)” `Ubadah said, “The Messenger of Allah led them in prayer, facing a camel from the war booty. When he finished the prayer, he stood up, held pelt of a camel between his fingers and said,

(This is also a part of the war booty you earned. Verily, I have no share in it, except my own share, the fifth designated to me. Even that fifth will be given to you (indicating the Prophet’s generosity). Therefore, surrender even the needle and the thread, and whatever is bigger or smaller than that (from the war spoils). Do not cheat with any of it, for stealing from the war booty before its distribution is Fire and a shame on its people in this life and the Hereafter. Perform Jihad against the people in Allah’s cause, whether they are near or far, and do not fear the blame of the blamers, as long as you are in Allah’s cause. Establish Allah’s rules while in your area and while traveling. Perform Jihad in Allah’s cause, for Jihad is a tremendous door leading to Paradise. Through it, Allah saves (one) from sadness and grief.)”

This is a tremendous Hadith, but I did not find it in any of the six collections of Hadith through this chain of narration. However, Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i recorded a Hadith from `Amr bin Shu`ayb, from his father, from his grandfather `Abdullah bin `Amr, from the Messenger of Allah , and this narration is similar to the one above, and a version from `Amr bin `Anbasah was recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i. The Prophet used to choose some types of the war booty for himself; a servant, a horse, or a sword, according to the reports from Muhammad bin Sirin, `Amir Ash-Sha`bi and many scholars. For instance, Imam Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi — who graded it Hasan — recorded from Ibn `Abbas that the Messenger of Allah chose a sword called `Dhul-Fiqar’ on the day of Badr. `A’ishah narrated that Safiyyah was among the captured women, and the Prophet chose (and married) her (upon his own choice and before distribution of war booty), as Abu Dawud narrated in the Sunan. As for the share of the Prophet’s relatives, it is paid to Bani Hashim and Bani Al-Muttalib, because the children of Al-Muttalib supported Bani Hashim in Jahiliyyah after Islam. They also went to the mountain pass of Abu Talib in support of the Messenger of Allah and to protect him (when the Quraysh boycotted Muslims for three years). Those who were Muslims (from Bani Al-Muttalib) did all this in obedience to Allah and His Messenger , while the disbelievers among them did so in support of their tribe and in obedience to Abu Talib, the Messenger’s uncle.

Allah said next,

orphans,

in reference to Muslim orphans,

the wayfarer,

the traveler and those who intend to travel for a distance during which shortening the prayer is legislated, but do not have resources to spend from. We will explain this subject in Surah Bara’h (9:60), Allah willing, and our reliance and trust is in Him alone.

Allah said,

if ye do believe in God and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant

Allah says, `Adhere to what We legislated for you, such as the ruling about one-fifth of the war spoils, if you truly believe in Allah, the Last Day and what We have revealed to Our Messenger .’ In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, – while narrating the lengthy Hadith about the delegation of Bani Abdul Qays – that the Messenger of Allah said to them,

I command you with four and forbid four from you. I command you to believe in Allah. Do you know what it means to believe in Allah Testifying that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing the prayer, giving Zakah and honestly surrendering one-fifth of the war spoils.)

Therefore, the Messenger listed surrendering one-fifth of the war booty as part of faith. This is why Al-Bukhari wrote a chapter in his Sahih entitled, “Chapter: Paying the Khumus (one-fifth) is Part of Faith.” He then narrated the above Hadith from Ibn `Abbas. Allah said next,

on the Day of Testing, – the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For God hath power over all things.

Allah is making His favors and compassion towards His creation known, when He distinguished between truth and falsehood in the battle of Badr. That day was called, `Al-Furqan’, because Allah raised the word of faith above the word of falsehood, He made His religion apparent and supported His Prophet and his group. `Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Badr is YawmAl-Furqan; during it, Allah separated between truth and falsehood.” Al-Hakim collected this statement. Similar statements were reported from Mujahid, Miqsam, `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and several others.

62) 8:042-Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than ye. Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet, ye would certainly have failed in the appointment: But (thus ye met), that God might accomplish a matter already enacted; that those who died might die after a clear Sign (had been given), and those who lived might live after a Clear Sign (had been given). And verily God is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).

Allah describes Yawm Al-Furqan, (i.e. the day of Badr),

Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley,

camping in the closest entrance of the valley towards Al-Madinah,

and they

the idolators, who were camped,

on the farther side,

from Al-Madinah, towards Makkah.

and the caravan

that was under the command of Abu Sufyan, with the wealth that it contained,

on lower ground than ye.

closer to the sea,

Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet,

you and the idolators,

ye would certainly have failed in the appointment:

Muhammad bin Ishaq said, “Yahya bin `Abbad bin `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr narrated to me from his father about this Ayah “Had there been an appointed meeting set between you and them and you came to know of their superior numbers and your few forces, you would not have met them,

But (thus ye met), that God might accomplish a matter already enacted;

Allah had decreed that He would bring glory to Islam and its people, while disgracing Shirk and its people. You (the companions) had no knowledge this would happen, but it was out of Allah’s compassion that He did that.” In a Hadith, Ka`b bin Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah and the Muslims marched to intercept the Quraysh caravan, but Allah made them meet their (armed) enemy without appointment.” Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Yazid bin Ruwman narrated to him that `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said, “Upon approaching Badr, the Messenger of Allah sent `Ali bin Abi Talib, Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas, Az-Zubayr bin Al-`Awwam and several other Companions to spy the pagans. They captured two boys, a servant of Bani Sa`id bin Al-`As and a servant of Bani Al-Hajjaj, while they were bringing water for Quraysh. So they brought them to the Messenger of Allah , but found him praying. The Companions started interrogating the boys, asking them to whom they belonged. Both of them said that they were employees bringing water for Quraysh (army). The Componions were upset with that answer, since they thought that the boys belonged to Abu Sufyan (who was commanding the caravan). So they beat the two boys vehemently, who said finally that they belonged to Abu Sufyan. Thereupon companions left them alone. When the Prophet ended the prayer, he said,

(When they tell you the truth you beat them, but when they lie you let them go They have said the truth, by Allah! They belong to the Quraysh. (addressing to the boys He said:) Tell me the news about Quraysh.)

The two boys said, `They are behind this hill that you see, on the far side of the valley.’ The Messenger of Allah asked,

(How many) They said, `We do not know the precise number.’ He asked,

(How many camels do they slaughter every day)

They said, `Nine or ten a day.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(They are between nine-hundred and a thousand.) He asked again,

(Which chiefs of Quraysh are accompanying the army) They said, `Utbah bin Rabi`ah, Shaybah bin Rabi`ah, Abu Al-Bakhtari bin Hisham, Hakim bin Hizam, Nawfal bin Khuwaylid, Al-Harith bin `Amir bin Nawfal, Tu`aymah bin Adi bin Nawfal, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith, Zam`ah bin Al-Aswad, Abu Jahl bin Hisham, Umayyah bin Khalaf, Nabih and Munabbih sons of Al-Hajjaj, Suhayl bin `Amr and `Amr bin `Abd Wadd.’ The Messenger of Allah said to the people,

that those who died might die after a clear Sign (had been given),

Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, “So that those who disbelieve do so after witnessing clear evidence, proof and lessons, and those who believe do so after witnessing the same.” This is a sound explanation. Allah says, He made you meet your enemy in one area without appointment, so that He gives you victory over them.’ This way, `He will raise the word of truth above falsehood, so that the matter is made clear, the proof unequivocal and the evidence plain. Then there will be no more plea or doubt for anyone. Then, those destined to destruction by persisting in disbelief do so with evidence, aware that they are misguided and that proof has been established against them,

and those who lived might live

those who wish to believe do so,

after a Clear Sign (had been given).

and proof. Verily, faith is the life of the heart, as Allah said,

(Is he who was dead (without faith by ignorance and disbelief) and We gave him life (by knowledge and faith) and set for him a light (of belief) whereby he can walk among men …) (6:122).

Allah said next,

And verily God is He Who heareth

of your invocation, humility and requests for His help,

and knoweth (all things).

meaning; about you, and you deserve victory over your rebellious, disbelieving enemies.

63) 8:043-Remember in thy dream God showed them to thee as few: if He had shown them to thee as many, ye would surely have been discouraged, and ye would surely have disputed in (your) decision; but God saved (you): for He knoweth well the (secrets) of (all) hearts. 64) 8:044-And remember when ye met, He showed them to you as few in your eyes, and He made you appear as contemptible in their eyes: that God might accomplish a matter already enacted. For to God do all questions go back (for decision).

Mujahid said, “In a dream, Allah showed the Prophet the enemy as few. The Prophet conveyed this news to his Companions and their resolve strengthened.” Similar was said by Ibn Ishaq and several others. Allah said,

(8:043) if He had shown them to thee as many, ye would surely have been discouraged,

you would have cowardly abstained from meeting them and fell in dispute among yourselves,

but God saved (you):

from all this, when He made you see them as few, (Certainly, He is the All-Knower of that is in the breasts.) (8:43).

Allah knows what the heart and the inner-self conceal, (Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal) (40:19).

Allah’s statement,

(8:044)And remember when ye met, He showed them to you as few in your eyes,

demonstrates Allah’s compassion towards the believers. Allah made them see few disbelievers in their eyes, so that they would be encouraged and feel eager to meet them. Abu Ishaq As-Subai`i said, that Abu `Ubaydah said that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “They were made to seem few in our eyes during Badr, so that I said to a man who was next to me, `Do you think they are seventy’ He said, `Rather, they are a hundred.’ However, when we captured one of them, we asked him and he said, `We were a thousand.”’ Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir recorded it. Allah said next,

He made you appear as contemptible in their eyes:

Allah said,

And remember when ye met, He showed them to you

He encouraged each of the two groups against the other, according to `Ikrimah, as recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. This statement has a Sahih chain of narrators. Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Yahya bin `Abbad bin `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr narrated to him that his father said about Allah’s statement,

that God might accomplish a matter already enacted.

“In order for the war to start between them, so that He would have revenge against those whom He decided to have revenge (pagans), and grant and complete His favor upon those He decided to grant favor to, His supporters.” The meaning of this, is that Allah encouraged each group against the other and made them look few in each other’s eyes, so that they were eager to meet them. This occurred before the battle started, but when it started and Allah supported the believers with a thousand angels in succession, the disbelieving group saw the believers double their number. Allah said,

(There has already been a sign for you (O Jews) in the two armies that met (in combat, the battle of Badr). One was fighting in the cause of Allah, and as for the other, (they) were disbelievers. They (disbelievers) saw them (believers) with their own eyes twice their number. And Allah supports with His aid whom He wills. Verily, in this is a lesson for those who understand.) (3:13)

This is how we combine these two Ayat, and certainly, each one of them is true, all the thanks are due to Allah and all the favors are from Him.

65) 8:045-O ye who believe! When ye meet a force, be firm, and call God in remembrance much (and often) that ye may prosper: 66) 8:046-And obey God and His Apostle; and fall into no disputes, lest ye lose heart and your power depart; and be patient and persevering: For God is with those who patiently persevere:

Allah instructs His faithful servants in the manners of fighting and methods of courage when meeting the enemy in battle,

(8:045)O ye who believe! When ye meet a force, be firm,

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Abdullah bin Abi Awfa said that during one battle, Allah’s Messenger waited until the sun declined, then stood among the people and said,

(O people! Do not wish to face the enemy (in a battle) and ask Allah to save you (from calamities). But if you should face the enemy, then be patient and let it be known to you that Paradise is under the shadows of the swords.)

He then stood and said,

(O Allah! Revealer of the (Holy) Book, Mover of the clouds, and Defeater of the Confederates, defeat them and grant us victory over them.)

Allah commands endurance upon meeting the enemy in battle and ordains patience while fighting them. Muslims are not allowed to run or shy away, or show cowardice in battle. They are commanded to remember Allah while in that condition and never neglect His remembrance. They should rather invoke Him for support, trust in Him and seek victory over their enemies from Him. They are required to obey Allah and His Messenger in such circumstances adhering to what He commanded them, and abstaining from what He forbade them. They are required to avoid disputing with each other, for this might lead to their defeat and failure,

(8:046) lest ye lose heart and your power depart;

so that your strength, endurance and courage do not depart from you,

and be patient and persevering: For God is with those who patiently persevere:

In their courage, and obedience to Allah and His Messenger, the Companions reached a level never seen before by any nation or generation before them, or any nation that will ever come. Through the blessing of the Messenger and their obedience to what he commanded, the Companions were able to open the hearts, as well as, the various eastern and western parts of the world in a rather short time. This occurred even though they were few, compared to the armies of the various nations at that time. For example, the Romans, Persians, Turks, Slavs, Berbers, Ethiopians, Sudanese tribes, the Copts and the rest of the Children of Adam. They defeated all of these nations, until Allah’s Word became the highest and His religion became dominant above all religions. The Islamic state spread over the eastern and western parts of the world in less than thirty years. May Allah grant them His pleasure, as well as, be pleased with them all, and may He gather us among them, for He is the Most Generous, and Giving.

67) 8:047-And be not like those who started from their homes insolently and to be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the path of God: For God compasseth round about all that they do. 68) 8:048-Remember Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them, and said: “No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you”: But when the two forces came in sight of each other, he turned on his heels, and said: “Lo! I am clear of you; lo! I see what ye see not; Lo! I fear God: for God is strict in punishment.”

After Allah commanded the believers to fight in His cause sincerely and to be mindful of Him, He commanded not to imitate the idolators, who went out of their homes

(8:047) insolently

to suppress the truth,

and to be seen of men,

boasting arrogantly with people. When Abu Jahl was told that the caravan escaped safely, so they should return to Makkah, he commented, “No, by Allah! We will not go back until we proceed to the well of Badr, slaughter camels, drink alcohol and female singers sing to us. This way, the Arabs will always talk about our stance and what we did on that day.” However, all of this came back to haunt Abu Jahl, because when they proceeded to the well of Badr, they brought themselves to death; and in the aftermath of Badr, they were thrown in the well of Badr, dead, disgraced, humiliated, despised and miserable in an everlasting, eternal torment. This is why Allah said here,

For God compasseth round about all that they do.

He knows how and what they came for, and this is why He made them taste the worst punishment. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi commented on Allah’s statement,

And be not like those who started from their homes insolently and to be seen of men,

“They were the idolators who fought against the Messenger of Allah at Badr.” Muhammad bin Ka`b said, “When the Quraysh left Makkah towards Badr, they brought female singers and drums along. Allah revealed this verse,

And be not like those who started from their homes insolently and to be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the path of God: For God compasseth round about all that they do.

Allah said next,

(8:048)Remember Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them, and said: “No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you”:

Shaytan, may Allah curse him, made the idolators’ purpose for marching seem fair to them. He made them think that no other people could defeat them that day. He also ruled out the possibility that their enemies, the tribe of Bani Bakr, would attack Makkah, saying, “I am your neighbor.” Shaytan appeared to them in the shape of Suraqah bin Malik bin Ju`shum, the chief of Bani Mudlij, so that, as Allah described them,

(He (Shaytan) makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan’s promises are nothing but deceptions)(4:120).

Ibn Jurayj said that Ibn `Abbas commented on this Ayah, (8:48) “On the day of Badr, Shaytan, as well as, his flag holder and soldiers, accompanied the idolators. He whispered to the hearts of the idolators, `None can defeat you today! I am your neighbor.’ When they met the Muslims and Shaytan witnessed the angels coming to their aid,

he turned on his heels,

he went away in flight while proclaiming,

lo! I see what ye see not;

`Ali bin Abi Talhah said, that Ibn `Abbas said about this Ayah,

No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you”:

“Shaytan, as well as, his devil army and flag holders, came on the day of Badr in the shape of a Suraqah bin Malik bin Ju`shum, man from Bani Mudlij, Shaytan said to idolators, `None will defeat you this day, and I will help you.’ When the two armies stood face to face, the Messenger of Allah took a handful of sand and threw it at the faces of the idolators, causing them to retreat. Jibril, peace be upon him, came towards Shaytan, but when Shaytan, while holding the hand of a Mushrik man, saw him, he withdrew his hand and ran away with his soldiers. That man asked him, `O Suraqah! You claimed that you are our neighbor’ He said,

lo! I see what ye see not; Lo! I fear God: for God is strict in punishment.”

Shaytan said this when he saw the angels.”

69) 8:057-If ye gain the mastery over them in war, disperse, with them, those who follow them, that they may remember.

Allah states here that the worst moving creatures on the face of the earth are those who disbelieve, who do not embrace the faith, and break promises whenever they make a covenant, even when they vow to keep them,

(8:056)(and they do not have Taqwa) meaning they do not fear Allah regarding any of the sins they commit.

If ye gain the mastery over them in war,

if you defeat them and have victory over them in war,

disperse, with them, those who follow them,

by severely punishing (the captured people) according to Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani and Ibn `Uyaynah. This Ayah commands punishing them harshly and inflicting casualties on them. This way, other enemies, Arabs and non-Arabs, will be afraid and take a lesson from their end,

that they may remember.

As-Suddi commented, “They might be careful not to break treaties, so that they do not meet the same end.”

70) 8:058-If thou fearest treachery from any group, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms: for God loveth not the treacherous

If thou fearest treachery from any group, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms: for God loveth not the treacherous

make a heading, Allah says to His Prophet ,

If thou fearest treachery from any group,

with whom you have a treaty of peace,

treachery

and betrayal of peace treaties and agreements that you have conducted with them,

throw back (their covenant) to them,

meaning their treaty of peace.

(so as to be) on equal terms:

informing them that you are severing the treaty. This way, you will be on equal terms, in that, you and they will be aware that a state of war exists between you and that the bilateral peace treaty is null and void,

for God loveth not the treacherous

This even includes treachery against the disbelievers. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salim bin `Amir said, “Mu`awiyah was leading an army in Roman lands, at a time the bilateral peace treaty was valid. He wanted to go closer to their forces so that when the treaty of peace ended, he could invade them. An old man riding on his animal said, `Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Great), Allahu Akbar! Be honest and stay away from betrayal.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever has a treaty of peace with a people, then he should not untie any part of it or tie it harder until the treaty reaches its appointed term. Or, he should declare the treaty null and void so that they are both on equal terms.) When Mu`awiyah was informed of the Prophet’s statement, he retreated. They found that man to be `Amr bin `Anbasah, may Allah be pleased with him.” This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

71) 8:059-Let not the unbelievers think that they can get the better (of the godly): they will never frustrate (them). 72) 8:060-Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of God and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom God doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of God, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly.

Allah says to His Prophet, in this Ayah,

(8:059)Let not the unbelievers think that they can get the better (of the godly)

Do not think that such disbelievers have escaped Us or that We are unable to grasp them. Rather, they are under the power of Our ability and in the grasp of Our will; they will never escape Us.’ Allah also said,

(Or think those who do evil deeds that they can outstrip Us (escape Our punishment) Evil is that which they judge!) (29:4),

(Consider not that the disbelievers can escape in the land. Their abode shall be the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination.) (24:57), and,

(Let not the free disposal (and affluence) of the disbelievers throughout the land deceive you. A brief enjoyment; then their ultimate abode is Hell; and worst indeed is that place for rest.) (3:196-197)

Allah commands Muslims to prepare for war against disbelievers, as much as possible, according to affordability and availability. Allah said,

(8:060)Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power,

whatever you can muster,

of your power, including steeds of war,

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Uqbah bin `Amir said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying, while standing on the Minbar;

Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power,

Verily, Power is shooting! Power is shooting.)

Muslim collected this Hadith.

Imam Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “The Messenger of Allah said,

(Horses are kept for one of three purposes; for some people they are a source of reward, for some others they are a means of shelter, and for some others they are a source of sin. The one for whom they are a source of reward, is he who keeps a horse for Allah’s cause (Jihad) tying it with a long tether on a meadow or in a garden. The result is that whatever it eats from the area of the meadow or the garden where it is tied, will be counted as good deeds for his benefit; and if it should break its rope and jump over one or two hillocks then all its dung and its footmarks will be written as good deeds for him. If it passes by a river and drinks water from it, even though he had no intention of watering it, then he will get the reward for its drinking. Therefore, this type of horse is a source of good deeds for him. As for the man who tied his horse maintaining self – sufficiency and abstinence from begging, all the while not forgetting Allah’s right concerning the neck and back of his horse, then it is a means of shelter for him. And a man who tied a horse for the sake of pride, pretense and showing enmity for Muslims, then this type of horse is a source of sins.)

When Allah’s Messenger was asked about donkeys, he replied,

(Nothing has been revealed to me from Allah about them except these unique, comprehensive Ayat:

(Then anyone who does an atom’s weight of good, shall see it. And anyone who does an atom’s weight of evil, shall see it.)) (99:7-8)”

Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith, this is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Prophet said,

(There are three reasons why horses are kept: A horse that is kept for Ar-Rahman (the Most Beneficent), a horse kept for Shaytan and a horse kept for the man. As for the horse kept for Ar-Rahman, it is the horse that is being kept for the cause of Allah (for Jihad), and as such, its food, dung and urine, etc., (he made mention of many things). As for the horse that is for Shaytan, it is one that is being used for gambling. As for the horse that is for man, it is the horse that one tethers, seeking its benefit. For him, this horse will be a shield against poverty.) oAl-Bukhari recorded that `Urwah bin Abi Al-Ja`d Al-Bariqi said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Good will remain in the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection, (that is) reward, and the spoils of war.)

Allah said next,

to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of God and your enemies,

the disbelievers,

and others besides,

such as Bani Qurayzah, according to Mujahid, or persians, according to As-Suddi.

Muqatil bin Hayyan and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that this Ayah refers to hypocrites, as supported by Allah’s statement,

(And among the bedouins around you, some are hypocrites, and so are some among the people of Al-Madinah who persist in hypocrisy; you know them not, We know them.)(9:101).

Allah said next,

Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of God, shall be repaid unto you,

Allah says, whatever you spend on Jihad will be repaid to you in full.

We also mentioned Allah’s statement,

(The parable of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah, is that of a grain (of corn) it grows seven ears, and each ear has a hundred grains. Allah gives manifold increase to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.) (2:261)

73) 8:065-O Prophet! rouse the Believers to the fight. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers: for these are a people without understanding. 74) 8:066-For the present, God hath lightened your (task), for He knoweth that there is a weak spot in you: But (even so), if there are a hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred, and if a thousand, they will vanquish two thousand, with the leave of God: for God is with those who patiently persevere.

Allah encourages His Prophet and the believers to fight and struggle against the enemy, and wage war against their forces. Allah affirms that He will suffice, aid, support, and help the believers against their enemies, even if their enemies are numerous and have sufficient supplies, while the believers are few. Allah said,

(8:065)O Prophet! rouse the Believers to the fight

encouraged and called them to fight. The Messenger of Allah used to encourage the Companions to fight when they faced the enemy. On the day of Badr when the idolators came with their forces and supplies, he said to his Companions,

(Get ready and march forth towards a Paradise as wide as the heavens and earth.)

`Umayr bin Al-Humam said, “As wide as the heavens and earth” The Messenger said,

(Yes) `Umayr said, “Excellent! Excellent!” The Messenger asked him,

(What makes you say, `Excellent! Excellent!’) He said, “The hope that I might be one of its dwellers.” The Prophet said,

(You are one of its people.) Umayr went ahead, broke the scabbard of his sword, took some dates and started eating from them. He then threw the dates from his hand, saying, “Verily, if I lived until I finished eating these dates, then it is indeed a long life.” He went ahead, fought and was killed, may Allah be pleased with him.

Allah said next, commanding the believers and conveying good news to them,

If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers:

The Ayah says, one Muslim should endure ten disbelievers. Allah abrogated this part later on, but the good news remained. `Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak said that Jarir bin Hazim narrated to them that, Az-Zubayr bin Al-Khirrit narrated to him, from `Ikrimah, from Ibn `Abbas, “When this verse was revealed,

If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred:

it became difficult for the Muslims, when Allah commanded that one Muslim is required to endure ten idolators. Soon after, this matter was made easy,

For the present, God hath lightened your (task)(8.066),

until,

they will vanquish two hundred:

God hath lightened your (task)

of adversaries that Muslims are required to endure), and thus, made the required patience less, compatible to the decrease in numbers.” Al-Bukhari recorded a similar narration from Ibn Al-Mubarak. Muhammad bin Ishaq recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “When this Ayah was revealed, it was difficult for the Muslims, for they thought it was burdensome since twenty should fight two hundred, and a hundred against a thousand. Allah made this ruling easy for them and abrogated this Ayah with another Ayah,

(8:066)For the present, God hath lightened your (task), for He knoweth that there is a weak spot in you:

Thereafter, if Muslims were half as many as their enemy, they were not allowed to run away from them. If the Muslims were fewer than that, they were not obligated to fight the disbelievers and thus allowed to avoid hostilities.”

75) 8:067-It is not fitting for a prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he hath thoroughly subdued the land. Ye look for the temporal goods of this world; but God looketh to the Hereafter: And God is Exalted in might, Wise. 76) 8:068-Had it not been for a previous ordainment from God, a severe penalty would have reached you for the (ransom) that ye took. 77) 8:069-But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good: but fear God: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, “The Prophet asked the people for their opinion about the prisoners of war of Badr, saying,

(Allah has made you prevail above them.) `Umar bin Al-Khattab stood up and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Cut off their necks,’ but the Prophet turned away from him. The Messenger of Allah again asked,

(O people! Allah has made you prevail over them, and only yesterday, they were your brothers.) `Umar again stood up and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Cut off their necks.’ The Prophet ignored him and asked the same question again and he repeated the same answer. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq stood up and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I think you should pardon them and set them free in return for ransom.’ Thereupon the grief on the face of Allah’s Messenger vanished. He pardoned them and accepted ransom for their release. Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, revealed this verse,

(8:068)Had it not been for a previous ordainment from God, a severe penalty would have reached you for the (ransom) that ye took.

`Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

Had it not been for a previous ordainment from God,

“In the Preserved Book, that war spoils and prisoners of war will be made allowed for you,

would have reached you for the (ransom) that ye took

because of the captives.

a severe penalty

Allah, the Exalted said next,

(8:069)But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good:

Al-`Awfi also reported this statement from Ibn `Abbas. A similar statement was collected from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Mas`ud, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata’, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah and Al-A`mash. They all stated that,

Had it not been for a previous ordainment from God,

refers to allowing the spoils of war for this Ummah.

Supporting this view is what the Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I have been given five things which were not given to any Prophet before me. (They are:) Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey. The earth has been made a place for praying and a purifyer for me. The booty has been made lawful for me, yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection). Every Prophet used to be sent to his people only, but I have been sent to all mankind.)

Al-A`mash narrated that Abu Salih said that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

War booty was never allowed for any among mankind except us.) (Abu Hurayrah said;) This is why Allah the Most High said,

But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good:

The Muslims then took the ransom for their captives. In his Sunan, Imam Abu Dawud recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah fixed four hundred (Dirhams) in ransom from the people of Jahiliyyah in the aftermath of Badr. The majority of the scholars say that the matter of prisoners of war is up to the Imam. If he decides, he can have them killed, such as in the case of Bani Qurayzah. If he decides, he can accept a ransom for them, as in the case of the prisoners of Badr, or exchange them for Muslim prisoners. The Messenger exchanged a woman and her daughter who were captured by Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, for exchange of some Muslims who were captured by the idolators, or if he decides he can take the prisoner as a captives.

78) 8:070-O Prophet! say to those who are captives in your hands: “If God findeth any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” 79) 8:071-But if they have treacherous designs against thee, (O Apostle!), they have already been in treason against God, and so hath He given (thee) power over them. And God so He Who hath (full) knowledge and wisdom.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said that before the battle of Badr, the Messenger of Allah said,

(I have come to know that some people from Bani Hashim and others were forced to accompany the pagans, although they had no desire to fight us. Therefore, whoever meets any of them (Bani Hashim), do not kill him. Whoever meets Abu Al-Bukhtari bin Hisham, should not kill him. Whoever meets Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib, let him not kill him, for he was forced to come (with the pagan army).) Abu Hudhayfah bin `Utbah said, “Shall we kill our fathers, children, brothers and tribesmen (from Quraysh), and leave Al-`Abbas By Allah! If I meet him, I will kill him with the sword.” When this reached the Messenger of Allah , he said to `Umar bin Al-Khattab,

(O Abu Hafs!), and `Umar said, “By Allah that was the first time that the Messenger of Allah called me Abu Hafs.”

(Will the face of the Messenger of Allahs’s uncle be struck with the sword) `Umar said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Give me permission to cut off his neck (meaning Abu Hudhayfah) for he has fallen into hypocrisy, by Allah!” Ever since that happened, Abu Hudhayfah used to say, “By Allah! I do not feel safe from this statement coming back to haunt me, and I will continue to fear its repercussions, unless Allah, the Exalted, forgives me for it through martyrdom.” Abu Hudhayfah was martyred during the battle of Al-Yamamah, may Allah be pleased with him.

Ibn `Abbas said, “On the eve after Badr, the Messenger of Allah spent the first part of the night awake, while the prisoners were bound. His Companions said to him, `O Allah’s Messenger! Why do you not sleep’ Al-`Abbas had been captured by a man from Al-Ansar, and the Messenger of Allah said to them,

(I heard the cries of pain from my uncle Al-`Abbas, because of his shackles, so untie him.) When his uncle stopped crying from pain, Allah’s Messenger went to sleep.” In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded a Hadith from Musa bin `Uqbah who said that Ibn Shihab said that Anas bin Malik said that some men from Al-Ansar said to the Messenger of Allah , “O Allah’s Messenger! Give us permission and we will set free our maternal cousin Al-`Abbas without taking ransom from him.” He said,

(No, by Allah! Do not leave any Dirham of it.) And from Yunus Bikkir, from Muhammad bin Ishaq, from Yazid bin Ruwman, from `Urwah, from Az-Zuhri that several people said to him, “The Quraysh sent to the Messenger of Allah concerning ransoming their prisoners, and each tribe paid what was required for their prisoners. Al-`Abbas said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I became a Muslims before.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah knows if you are Muslim! If what you are claiming is true, then Allah will compensate you. As for your outward appearance, it was against us. Therefore, ransom yourself, as well as, your nephews Nawfal bin Al-Harith bin `Abdul-Muttalib and `Aqil bin Abu Talib bin `Abdul-Muttalib, and also your ally `Utbah bin `Amr, from Bani Al-Harith bin Fihr.) Al-`Abbas said, `I do not have that (money), O Allah’s Messenger!’ The Messenger said,

(What about the wealth that you and Umm Al-Fadl buried, and you said to her, `If I am killed in this battle, then this money that I buried is for my children Al-Fadl, `Abdullah and Quthm) Al-`Abbas said, `By Allah, O Allah’s Messenger! I know that you are Allah’s Messenger, for this is a thing that none except Umm Al-Fadl and I knew. However, O Allah’s Messenger! Could you count towards my ransom the twenty Uwqiyah (pertaining to a weight) that you took from me (in the battle)’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(No, for that was money that Allah made as war spoils for us from you).

So Al-`Abbas ransomed himself, his two nephews and an ally, and Allah revealed this verse,

(8:070)O Prophet! say to those who are captives in your hands: “If God findeth any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.”

(Al-`Abbas commented, `After I became Muslim, Allah gave me twenty servants in place of the twenty Uwqiyah I lost. And I hope for Allah’s forgiveness.”

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi recorded, that Anas bin Malik said, “The Prophet was brought some wealth from Bahrain and said;

(Distribute it in my Masjid) and it was the biggest amount of goods Allah’s Messenger had ever received. He left for prayer and did not even look at the goods. After finishing the prayer, he sat by those goods and gave some of it to everybody he saw. Al-`Abbas came to him and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! give me (something) too, because I gave ransom for myself and `Aqil. ‘ Allah’s Messenger told him to take. So he stuffed his garment with it and tried to carry it away but he failed to do so. He said, `Order someone to help me in lifting it.’ The Prophet refused. He then said to the Prophet , `Will you please help me to lift it’ Allah’s Messenger refused. Then Al-`Abbas dropped some of it and lifted it on his shoulders and went away. Allah’s Messenger kept on watching him till he disappeared from his sight and was astonished at his greediness. Allah’s Messenger did not get up until the last coin was distributed.” Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith in several places of his Sahih with an abridged chain, in a manner indicating his approval of it.

Allah said,

(8:071)But if they have treacherous designs against thee, (O Apostle!), they have already been in treason against God,

meaning,

But if they have treacherous designs against thee,

in contradiction to what they declare to you by words

they have already been in treason against God,

the battle of Badr by committing disbelief in Him,

and so hath He given (thee) power over them.

causing them to be captured in Badr,

And God so He Who hath (full) knowledge and wisdom.

He is Ever Aware of his actions and All-Wise in what He decides.

80) 8:072-Those who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the Faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of God, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid, – these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another. As to those who believed but came not into exile, ye owe no duty of protection to them until they come into exile; but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them, except against a people with whom ye have a treaty of mutual alliance. And (remember) God seeth all that ye do.

Here Allah mentions the types of believers, dividing them into the Muhajirin, who left their homes and estates, emigrating to give support to Allah and His Messenger to establish His religion. They gave up their wealth and themselves in this cause. There are also the Ansar, the Muslims of Al-Madinah, who gave asylum to their Muhajirin brethren in their own homes and comforted them with their wealth. They also gave aid to Allah and His Messenger by fighting alongside the Muhajirun. Certainly they are,

(all) friends and protectors, one of another.

for each one of them has more right to the other than anyone else. This is why Allah’s Messenger forged ties of brotherhood between the Muhajirin and Ansar, as Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas. They used to inherit from each other, having more right to inheritance than the deceased man’s relatives, until Allah abrogated that practice with the fixed share for near relatives. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jarir bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The Muhajirun and Al-Ansar are the supporters of each other, while the Tulaqa’ of Quraysh (whom the Prophet set free after conquering Makkah) and `Utaqa’ from Thaqif (whom the Prophet set free from captivity after the battle of Hunayn) are supporters of each other until the Day of Resurrection. )

Only Ahmad collected this Hadith.

Allah praised the Muhajirin and the Ansar in several Ayat of His Book and His Messenger (also praised them too). Allah said,

(And the foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhajirun and the Ansar and also those who followed them exactly. Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise).)(9:100), k

(Allah has forgiven the Prophet, the Muhajirin and the Ansar who followed him in the time of distress.) (9:117), and,

((And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor Muhajirin, who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking bounties from Allah and (His) good pleasure, and helping Allah and His Messenger. Such are indeed the truthful. And those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and adopted the faith, love those who emigrate to them, and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given, and give them (emigrants) preference over themselves even though they were in need of that) (59:8-9).

The best comment on Allah’s statement,

(…and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given) is that it means, they do not envy the Muhajirin for the rewards that Allah gave them for their emigration. These Ayat indicate that the Muhajirin are better in grade than the Ansar, and there is a consensus on this ruling among the scholars.

As to those who believed but came not into exile, ye owe no duty of protection to them until they come into exile;

This is the third category of believers, those who believed, but did not perform Hijrah and instead remained in their areas. They do not have any share in the war booty or in the fifth) designated for Allah and His Messenger, the relatives of the Prophet , the orphans, the poor and the wayfarer(, unless they attend battle.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Buraydah bin Al-Hasib Al-Aslami said, “When the Messenger of Allah would send a commander with an expedition force or an army, he would advise him to have Taqwa of Allah and be kind to the Muslims under his command. He used to say,

(Fight in the Name of Allah, in the cause of Allah. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah. When you meet your Mushrik enemy, then call them to one of three choices, and whichever they agree to, then accept it and turn away from them. Call them to embrace Islam, and if they agree, accept it from them and turn away from them. Then call them to leave their area and come to areas in which the Muhajirin reside. Make known to them that if they do this, they will have the rights, as well as, the duties of the Muhajirin. If they refuse and decide to remain in their area, make known to them that they will be just like Muslim bedouins, and that Allah’s law applies to them just as it does to all believers. However, they will not have a share in the war booty or Fai’ (booty without war), unless they perform Jihad along with Muslims. If they refuse all of this, then call them to pay the Jizyah, and if they accept, then take it from them and turn away from them. If they refuse all these)three(options, then trust in Allah and fight them.)

Muslim collected this Hadith.

Allah said next,

but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them,

Allah commands, if these bedouins, who did not perform Hijrah, ask you to aid them against their enemy, then aid them. It is incumbent on you to aid them in this case, because they are your brothers in Islam, unless they ask you to aid them against disbelievers with whom you have a fixed-term treaty of peace. In that case, do not betray your treaties or break your promises with those whom you have treaties of peace. This was reported from Ibn `Abbas.

81) 8:073-The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: Unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief.

After Allah mentioned that the believers are the supporters of one another, He severed all ties of support between them and the disbelievers. In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that Usamah said that the Prophet said,

(No followers of two religions inherit from each other. Therefore, neither a Muslim inherits from a disbeliever nor a disbeliever from a Muslim.)

The Prophet recited this Ayah,

The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: Unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief.

Al-Hakim said, “Its chain is Sahih, and they did not record it.” However, the following, from Usamah bin Zayd, is in the Two Sahihs; the Messenger of Allah said,

(Neither a Muslim inherits from a disbeliever nor a disbeliever inherits from a Muslim.)

Allah said next,

Unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief.

meaning, if you do not shun the idolators and offer your loyalty to the believers, Fitnah will overcome the people. Then confusion) polytheism and corruption (will be rampant, for the believers will be mixed with disbelievers, resulting in tremendous, widespread trials) corruption and mischief (between people.

82) 8:074-Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of God as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid, – these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.

83) 8:075-And those who accept Faith subsequently, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith in your company, – they are of you. But kindred by blood have prior rights against each other in the Book of God. Verily God is well-acquainted with all things.

After Allah affirmed the ruling of loyalty and protection between the believers in this life, He then mentioned their destination in the Hereafter. Allah also affirmed the faith of the believers, just as mentioned in the beginning of this Surah, and that He will reward them with forgiveness and by erasing their sins, if they have any. He also promised them honorable provisions that are abundant, pure, everlasting and eternal; provisions that never end or run out, nor will they ever cause boredom, for they are delightful and come in great varieties. Allah then mentioned that those who follow the path of the believers in faith and performing good deeds, will be with them in the Hereafter. Just as Allah said,

(And the foremost to embrace Islam…) (9:100), until the end of the Ayah. He also said,

(And those who came after them …) (59:10).

A Hadith that is in the Two Sahihs, which is Mutawatir and has several authentic chains of narrations, mentions that the Messenger of Allah said,

(One will be in the company of those whom he loves.) Another Hadith states,

(He who loves a people is one of them), and in another narration, he said,

(…will be gathered with them (on the Day of Resurrection).)

Allah said,

(But kindred by blood are nearer to one another (regarding inheritance) in the decree ordained by Allah), meaning, in Allah’s decision. This Ayah encompasses all relatives, not only the degrees of relative who do not have a fixed, designated share in the inheritance, as some people claim and use this Ayah to argue. According to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and several others, this Ayah abrogated inheriting from those with whom one had ties of treaties or brotherhood, as was the case in the beginning of Islam. So it applies to all relatives, and as for those who do not inherit, then this is supported by the Hadith,

(Indeed Allah had alloted every right to the one who deserves it, so there may be no will for an heir.)

Therefore, this Ayah also includes those who have a fixed share of inheritance. Allah knows best.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Anfal, all praise and thanks are for Allah, in Him we trust, and He is sufficient for us, what an excellent supporter He is.

84) 9:005-But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war) but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for them: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

Mujahid, `Amr bin Shu`ayb, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Qatadah, As-Suddi and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that the four months mentioned in this Ayah are the four-month grace period mentioned in the earlier Ayah,

(So travel freely for four months throughout the land.) Allah said next,

But when the forbidden months are past,

meaning, `Upon the end of the four months during which We prohibited you from fighting the idolators, and which is the grace period We gave them, then fight and kill the idolators wherever you may find them.’ Allah’s statement next,

then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them,

means, on the earth in general, except for the Sacred Area, for Allah said,

(And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they fight you there. But if they attack you, then fight them. )(2:191)Allah said here,

and seize them,

executing some and keeping some as prisoners,

beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war)

do not wait until you find them. Rather, seek and besiege them in their areas and forts, gather intelligence about them in the various roads and fairways so that what is made wide looks ever smaller to them. This way, they will have no choice, but to die or embrace Islam,

but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for them: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq used this and other honorable Ayat as proof for fighting those who refrained from paying the Zakah. These Ayat allowed fighting people unless, and until, they embrace Islam and implement its rulings and obligations. Allah mentioned the most important aspects of Islam here, including what is less important. Surely, the highest elements of Islam after the Two Testimonials, are the prayer, which is the right of Allah, the Exalted and Ever High, then the Zakah, which benefits the poor and needy. These are the most honorable acts that creatures perform, and this is why Allah often mentions the prayer and Zakah together. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I have been commanded to fight the people until they testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish the prayer and pay the Zakah.) This honorable Ayah (9:5) was called the Ayah of the Sword, about which Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said, “It abrogated every agreement of peace between the Prophet and any idolator, every treaty, and every term.” Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas commented: “No idolator had any more treaty or promise of safety ever since Surah Bara’ah was revealed. The four months, in addition to, all peace treaties conducted before Bara’ah was revealed and announced had ended by the tenth of the month of Rabi` Al-Akhir.”

85) 9:012-But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for your Faith, – fight ye the chiefs of Unfaith: for their oaths are nothing to them: that thus they may be restrained.

Allah says, if the idolators with whom you conducted peace treaties for an appointed term break

their oaths

meaning, terms of their treaties, and covenants

and taunt you for your Faith,

with disapproval and criticism, it is because of this that one who curses the Messenger, peace be upon him, or attacks the religion of Islam by way of criticism and disapproval, they are to be fought. This is why Allah said afterwards,

– fight ye the chiefs of Unfaith: for their oaths are nothing to them: that thus they may be restrained.

so that they may refrain from the disbelief, rebellion and the transgression they indulge in. Qatadah and others said that the leaders of disbelief were Abu Jahl, `Utbah and Shaybah, Umayyah bin Khalaf, and he went on to mention several others. Al-A`mash narrated from Zayd bin Wahb from Hudhayfah; “The people of this Ayah were never fought again.” A similar statement was reported from `Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him. However, this Ayah is general, even though the specific reason behind revealing it was the idolators of Quraysh. So this Ayah generally applies to them and others as well, Allah knows best. Al-Walid bin Muslim said that Safwan bin `Amr narrated that `Abdur-Rahman bin Jubayr bin Nufayr said that when Abu Bakr sent an army to Ash-Sham, he advised them, “You will find some people with shaved heads. Therefore, strike the swords upon the parts that contain the devil, for by Allah, it is better to me to kill one of these people than to kill seventy other men. This is because Allah said,

– fight ye the chiefs of Unfaith:

Ibn Abi Hatim collected it.

86) 9:013-Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the Apostle, and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you? Do ye fear them? Nay, it is God Whom ye should more justly fear, if ye believe! 87) 9:014-Fight them, and God will punish them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you (to victory) over them, heal the breasts of Believers,

These Ayat encourage, direct and recommend fighting against the idolators who break the terms of their covenants, those who tried to expel the Messenger from Makkah. Allah said in other Ayat,

(And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you to imprison you, or to kill you, or to expell you; they were plotting and Allah too was plotting; and Allah is the best of those who plot.) (8:30),

(…and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allah your Lord!) (60:1), and,

(And verily, they were about to frighten you so much as to drive you out from the land.) (17:76) Allah’s statement,

(9:013) and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you?

refers to the battle of Badr when the idolators marched to protect their caravan. When they knew that their caravan escaped safely, they still went ahead with their intent to fight Muslims out of arrogance, as we mentioned before. It was also said that these Ayat refer to the idolators breaking the peace agreement with Muslims and aiding Bani Bakr, their allies, against Khuza`ah, the ally of the Messenger of Allah . This is why the Messenger of Allah marched to Makkah in the year of the victory, thus conquering it, all thanks and praise is due to Allah. Allah said,

Do ye fear them? Nay, it is God Whom ye should more justly fear, if ye believe!

Allah says here, `Do not fear idolators, but fear Me instead, for I am worthy of being feared by the servants due to My might and punishment. In My Hand lies the matter; whatever I will occurs, and whatever I do not will does not occur.’ Allah next said, while ordering the believers and explaining the wisdom of ordaining Jihad against them, all the while able to destroy their enemies with a command from Him,

(9:014) Fight them, and God will punish them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you (to victory) over them, heal the breasts of Believers,

This Ayah includes all believers, even though Mujahid, `Ikrimah and As-Suddi said that it refers to Khuza`ah. Concerning the believers, Allah said;

(9:015. and remove the anger of their hearts), then

(Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills), from His servants,

(Allah is All-Knowing), in what benefits His servants,

(All-Wise), in His actions and statements, whether narrative or legislative. Allah does what He wills, decides what He wills, and He is the Just Who never wrongs any. Not even the weight of an atom of good or evil is ever neglected with Him, but rather, He compensates for it in this life and the Hereafter.

88) 9:016-Or think ye that ye shall be abandoned, as though God did not know those among you who strive with might and main, and take none for friends and protectors except God, His Apostle, and the (community of) Believers? But God is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.

Allah said,

Or think ye

O believers that We will leave you untested with matters that make apparent those who have pure, good intent from those who have false intent This is why Allah said next,

as though God did not know those among you who strive with might and main, and take none for friends and protectors except God, His Apostle, and the (community of) Believers?

meaning, supporters and confidants. Rather, they are sincere for Allah and His Messenger inwardly and outwardly. Allah also said;

(Alif-Lam-Mim. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: “We believe,” and will not be tested. And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allah will certainly make known those who are true, and will certainly make known those who are liars…) (29:1-3),

(Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allah tests those of you who fought (in His cause) and (also) tests those who are patient)(3: 142), and,

(Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good)(3:179). In summary, since Allah legislated Jihad for His servants, He explained that the wisdom behind doing so includes testing His servants, distinguishing between those who obey Him and those who disobey Him. Allah, the Exalted, is the All-Knower of what occurred, what will occur, and the true essence of what might occur had He decided it. Therefore, Allah knows everything before it occurs and how it will occur, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, nor a Lord except Him. Truly, there is none who can avert Allah’s judgment and decision.

89) 9:019-Do ye make the giving of drink to pilgrims, or the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque, equal to (the pious service of) those who believe in God and the Last Day, and strive with might and main in the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God: and God guides not those who do wrong. 90) 9:020-Those who believe, and suffer exile and strive with might and main, in God’s cause, with their goods and their persons, have the highest rank in the sight of God: they are the people who will achieve (salvation).

In his Tafsir, Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas explained this Ayah: “The idolators said, `Maintaining Al-Masjid Al-Haram and providing water for pilgrims are better than embracing the faith and performing Jihad.’ They used to boast and show off among the people because they claimed, they were the people and maintainers of Al-Masjid Al-Haram. Allah mentioned their arrogance and rejection (of the faith), saying to `the people of Al-Haram’, who were idolators,

Indeed My Ayat used to be recited to you, but you used to turn back on your heels (denying them, and refusing to listen to them with hatred). In pride, talking evil about it (the Qur’an) by night.) (23:66-67). They used to boast about being those who maintained the Sacred Sanctuary,

(talking about it by night). They used to talk about this by night while shunning the Qur’an and the Prophet . Allah declared that faith and Jihad with the Prophet are better than the idolators’ maintaining Al-Masjid Al-Haram and providing water for pilgrims. These actions — maintaining and serving Allah’s House — will not benefit them with Allah because they associate others with Him. Allah the Exalted said,

They are not comparable in the sight of God: and God guides not those who do wrong.

those who claimed they are the maintainers of the House. Allah described them with injustice, on account of their Shirk, and thus, their maintaining the Masjid will not avail them.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “This Ayah was revealed about Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib, for when he was captured in the battle of Badr, he said, `If you rushed before us to embrace Islam, perform Hijrah and Jihad, we were maintaining Al-Masjid Al-Haram, providing water for the pilgrims and setting the indebted free.’ Allah, the Exalted and Ever High, said,

Do ye make the giving of drink to pilgrims,

until,

and God guides not those who do wrong.

Allah says, `All these actions were performed while committing Shirk, and I do not accept the (good deeds) that are performed while in a state of Shirk.”’ Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said, “Muslims came to Al-`Abbas and his friends who were captured during the battle of Badr and admonished them for their Shirk. Al-`Abbas said, `By Allah! We used to maintain Al-Masjid Al-Haram, release the indebted, serve the House (or cover it, or maintain it) and provide water for pilgrims.’ Allah revealed this verse,

Do ye make the giving of drink to pilgrims,

There is a Hadith (from the Prophet ) about the Tafsir of this Ayah that we should mention. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that An-Nu`man bin Bashir said that a man said, “I do not care if I do not perform an action after embracing Islam other than providing drinking water for pilgrims (who visit the Ka`bah at Makkah).” Another man said, “I do not care if I do not perform an action after embracing Islam other than maintaining Al-Masjid Al-Haram.” A third man said, “Jihad in the cause of Allah is more righteous than what you have said.” `Umar admonished them, “Do not raise your voices next to the Minbar of the Messenger of Allah,” and as it was a Friday, he said, “but after we pray the Friday prayer, we will go to the Prophet and ask him.” This verse was revealed,

Do ye make the giving of drink to pilgrims, or the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque,

until,

They are not comparable in the sight of God:

91) 9:024-Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth that ye have gained; the commerce in which ye fear a decline: or the dwellings in which ye delight – are dearer to you than God, or His Apostle, or the striving in His cause; – then wait until God brings about His decision: and God guides not the rebellious.

Allah commands shunning the disbelievers, even if they are one’s parents or children, and prohibits taking them as supporters if they choose disbelief instead of faith. Allah warns,

(You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people). For such He has written (predetermined) faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with a Ruh (proof, light and true guidance) from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow.) (58:22) Al-Hafiz Al-Bayhaqi recorded that `Abdullah bin Shawdhab said, “The father of Abu `Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah was repeatedly praising the idols to his son on the day of Badr, and Abu `Ubaydah kept avoiding him. When Al-Jarrah persisted, his son Abu `Ubaydah headed towards him and killed him. Allah revealed this Ayah in his case,

(You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger.”)(58:22) Allah commanded His Messenger to warn those who prefer their family, relatives or tribe to Allah, His Messenger and Jihad in His cause,

Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth that ye have gained;

amassed and collected,

the commerce in which ye fear a decline: or the dwellings in which ye delight –

and prefer and love because they are comfortable and good. If all these things,

are dearer to you than God, or His Apostle, or the striving in His cause;

for what will befall you of Allah’s punishment and torment,

then wait until God brings about His decision: and God guides not the rebellious.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Zuhrah bin Ma`bad said that his grandfather said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah , while he was holding the hand of `Umar bin Al-Khattab. `Umar said, `By Allah! You, O Messenger of Allah, are dearer to me than everything, except for myself.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(None among you will attain faith until I become dearer to him than even himself.) `Umar said, `Verily, now, you are dearer to me than myself, by Allah!’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(Now, O `Umar!)” Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud (this is the version of Abu Dawud) recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(If you transact in `Iynah (a type of Riba), follow the tails of cows (tilling the land), become content with agriculture and abandoned Jihad, Allah will send on you disgrace that He will not remove until, you return to your religion.)”

92) 9:025-Assuredly God did help you in many battle-fields and on the day of Hunain: Behold! your great numbers elated you, but they availed you naught: the land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and ye turned back in retreat. 93) 9:026-But God did pour His calm on the Apostle and on the Believers, and sent down forces which ye saw not: He punished the Unbelievers; thus doth He reward those without Faith.

Ibn Jurayj reported from Mujahid that this was the first Ayah of Bara’ah in which Allah, the Exalted, reminds the believers how He favored and blessed them by giving them victory in many battles with His Messenger . Allah mentioned that victory comes from Him, by His aid and decree, not because of their numbers or adequate supplies, whether the triumphs are few or many. On the day of Hunayn, the Muslims were proud because of their large number, which did not avail them in the least; they retreated and fled from battle. Only a few of them remained with the Messenger of Allah Allah then sent down His aid and support to His Messenger and the believers who remained with him, so that they were aware that victory is from Allah alone and through His aid, even if the victorious were few. Many a small group overcame a larger opposition by Allah’s leave, and Allah is ever with those who are patient. We will explain this subject in detail below, Allah willing.

The battle of Hunayn occurred after the victory of Makkah, in the month of Shawwal of the eighth year of Hijrah. After the Prophet conquered Makkah and things settled, most of its people embraced Islam and he set them free. News came to the Messenger of Allah that the tribe of Hawazin were gathering their forces to fight him, under the command of Malik bin `Awf An-Nadri, as well as, the entire tribe of Thaqif, the tribes of Banu Jusham, Banu Sa`d bin Bakr, a few people of Awza` from Banu Hilal and some people from Bani `Amr bin `Amir and `Awf bin `Amir. They brought their women, children, sheep and camels along, in addition to their armed forces and adequate supplies. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them with the army that he brought to conquer Makkah, ten thousand from the Muhajirin, the Ansar and various Arab tribes. Along with them came the Tulaqa’ numbering two thousand men. The Messenger took them along to meet the enemy. The two armies met in Humayn, a valley between Makkah and At-Ta’if. The battle started in the early part of the morning, when the Huwazin forces, who were lying in ambush, descended on the valley when the Muslims entered. Muslims were suddenly struck by the ambush, the arrows descended on them and the swords struck them. The Huwazin commander ordered them to descend and attack the Muslims as one block, and when they did that, the Muslims retreated in haste, just as Allah described them. The Messenger of Allah remained firm in his position while riding his mule, Ash-Shahba’. He was leading his mule towards the enemy, while his uncle Al-`Abbas was holding its right-hand rope and (his cousin) Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith bin `Abdul-Muttalib was holding the left rope. They tried to hold the mule back so it would not run faster toward the enemy. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah was declaring his name aloud and saying,

(O servants of Allah! Come back to me! I am the Messenger of Allah! He repeated these words,

(I am the Prophet, not lying! I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib!) There remained between a hundred and eighty Companions with the Prophet . These included Abu Bakr, `Umar, Al-`Abbas, `Ali, Al-Fadl bin `Abbas, Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith, Ayman the son of Umm Ayman and Usamah bin Zayd. There were many other Companions, may Allah be pleased with them. The Prophet commanded his uncle Al-`Abbas, whose voice was rather loud, to call at the top of his voice, “O Companions of the Samurah (tree)” referring to the Muhajirin and Ansar who gave their pledge under the tree during the pledge of Ridwan, not to run away and retreat. He also called, “O Companions of Surat Al-Baqarah.” Upon hearing that, those heralded started saying, “Here we are! Here we are!” Muslims started returning in the direction of the Messenger of Allah . If the camel of one of them did not obey him (as the people were rushing to the other direction in flight) he would wear his shield and descend from his camel and rush to the side of the Messenger of Allah on foot. When a large crowd gathered around the Messenger of Allah , he commanded them to fight in sincerity and took a handful of sand and threw it in the faces of the disbelievers, after supplicating to Allah,

O Allah! Fulfill Your promise to me!) Then he threw that handful of sand which entered the eyes and mouth of all the disbelievers, thus distracting them from fighting, and they retreated in defeat. The Muslims pursued the enemy, killing and capturing them. The rest of the Muslim army (returning to battle gradually) rejoined their positions and found many captured disbelieving soldiers kept tied before the Messenger of Allah . In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Shu`bah said that Abu Ishaq said that Al-Bara’ bin `Azib said to a man who asked him, “O Abu `Amarah! Did you run away during Hunayn and leave the Messenger of Allah ” Al-Bara’ said, “But the Messenger of Allah did not run away. Hawazin was a tribe proficient with their arrows. When we met them we attacked their forces and they ran away in defeat. The Muslims started to worry about collecting the spoils of war and the Hawazin started shooting arrows at us, then the Muslims fled. I saw the Messenger of Allah proclaiming, — while Abu Sufyan was holding the bridle of his white mule,

(I am the Prophet, not lying, I am the son of `Abdul- Muttalib!) This shows the great courage on behalf of the Prophet in the midst of confusion, when his army ran away and left him behind. Yet, the Messenger remained on his mule, which is a slow animal, not suitable for fast battle moves or even escape. Yet, the Messenger of Allah was encouraging his mule to move forward towards the enemy announcing who he was, so that those among them who did not know who he was came to know him. May Allah’s peace and blessings be on the Messenger until the Day of Resurrection. This indicates the tremendous trust in Allah and reliance upon Him, as well as, sure knowledge that He will give him victory, complete what He has sent him for and give prominence to his religion above all other religions. Allah said,

(9:026)But God did pour His calm on the Apostle

He sent down tranquillity and reassurance to His Messenger

and on the Believers,

who remained with him,

and sent down forces which ye saw not:

this refers to angels. Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir (At-Tabari) said that Al-Qasim narrated to them, that Al-Hasan bin `Arafah said that Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman said from `Awf bin Abi Jamilah Al-`Arabi who said that he heard `Abdur-Rahman, the freed slave of Ibn Barthan saying, “A man who participated in Hunayn with the idolators narrated to me, `When we met the Messenger of Allah and his Companions on the day of Hunayn, they did not remain in battle more than the time it takes to milk a sheep! When we defeated them, we pursued them until we ended at the rider of the white mule, the Messenger of Allah . At that time, men with white handsome faces intercepted us and said: `Disgraced be the faces! Go back. So we ran away, but they followed us. That was the end for us.”’ Allah said,

(9:027.Then after that Allah will accept the repentance of whom He wills. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) Allah forgave the rest of Huwazin when they embraced Islam and went to the Prophet , before he arrived at Makkah in the Ji`ranah area. This occurred twenty days after the battle of Hunayn. The Messenger gave them the choice between taking those who were prisoner or the war spoils they lost, and they chose the former. The Prophet released six thousand prisoners to them, but divided the war spoils between the victors, such as some of the Tulaqa’, so that their hearts would be inclined towards Islam. He gave each of them a hundred camels, and the same to Malik bin `Awf An-Nasri whom he appointed chief of his people (Huwazin) as he was before. Malik bin `Awf said a poem in which he praised the Messenger of Allah for his generosity and extraordinary courage.

94) 9:029-Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His Apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

Allah commands His believing servants, who are pure in religion and person, to expel the idolators who are filthy in the religious sense, from Al-Masjid Al-Haram. After the revelation of this Ayah, idolators were no longer allowed to go near the Masjid. This Ayah was revealed in the ninth year of Hijrah. The Messenger of Allah sent `Ali in the company of Abu Bakr that year to publicize to the idolators that no Mushrik will be allowed to perform Hajj after that year, nor a naked person allowed to perform Tawaf around the House. Allah completed this decree, made it a legislative ruling, as well as, a fact of reality. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah commented on the Ayah,

(O you who believe! Verily, the Mushrikin are impure. So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram after this year) “Unless it was a servant or one of the people of Dhimmah.” Imam Abu `Amr Al-Awza’i said, “Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz wrote (to his governors) to prevent Jews and Christians from entering the Masjids of Muslims, and he followed his order with Allah’s statement,

(Verily, the Mushrikin are impure.) `Ata’ said, “All of the Sacred Area (the Haram) is considered a Masjid, for Allah said,

(So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year.)” This Ayah indicates that idolators are impure and that the believers are pure. In the Sahih is the following,

(The believer does not become impure.) Allah said,

(and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you, out of His bounty.) Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, “The people said, `Our markets will be closed, our commerce disrupted, and what we earned will vanish.’ So Allah revealed this verse,

(and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you, out of His bounty), from other resources,

(if He wills), until,

and feel themselves subdued.

This Ayah means, `this will be your compensation for the closed markets that you feared would result.’ Therefore, Allah compensated them for the losses they incurred because they severed ties with idolators, by the Jizyah they earned from the People of the Book.” Similar statements were reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak and others. Allah said,

(Surely, Allah is All-Knowing), in what benefits you,

(All-Wise), in His orders and prohibitions, for He is All-Perfect in His actions and statements, All-Just in His creations and decisions, Blessed and Hallowed be He. This is why Allah compensated Muslims for their losses by the amount of Jizyah that they took from the people of Dhimmah.

Allah said,

Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His Apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

Therefore, when People of the Scriptures disbelieved in Muhammad , they had no beneficial faith in any Messenger or what the Messengers brought. Rather, they followed their religions because this conformed with their ideas, lusts and the ways of their forefathers, not because they are Allah’s Law and religion. Had they been true believers in their religions, that faith would have directed them to believe in Muhammad , because all Prophets gave the good news of Muhammad’s advent and commanded them to obey and follow him. Yet when he was sent, they disbelieved in him, even though he is the mightiest of all Messengers. Therefore, they do not follow the religion of earlier Prophets because these religions came from Allah, but because these suit their desires and lusts. Therefore, their claimed faith in an earlier Prophet will not benefit them because they disbelieved in the master, the mightiest, the last and most perfect of all Prophets . Hence Allah’s statement,

Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His Apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book,

This honorable Ayah was revealed with the order to fight the People of the Book, after the pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah’s religion in large numbers, and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims’ control. Allah commanded His Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination. The Messenger sent his intent to various Arab areas around Al-Madinah to gather forces, and he collected an army of thirty thousand. Some people from Al-Madinah and some hypocrites, in and around it, lagged behind, for that year was a year of drought and intense heat. The Messenger of Allah marched, heading towards Ash-Sham to fight the Romans until he reached Tabuk, where he set camp for about twenty days next to its water resources. He then prayed to Allah for a decision and went back to Al-Madinah because it was a hard year and the people were weak, as we will mention, Allah willing.

Allah said,

until they pay the Jizya

if they do not choose to embrace Islam,

with willing submission,

in defeat and subservience,

and feel themselves subdued.

disgraced, humiliated and belittled. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to honor the people of Dhimmah or elevate them above Muslims, for they are miserable, disgraced and humiliated. Muslim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

(Do not initiate the Salam to the Jews and Christians, and if you meet any of them in a road, force them to its narrowest alley.) This is why the Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, demanded his well-known conditions be met by the Christians, these conditions that ensured their continued humiliation, degradation and disgrace. The scholars of Hadith narrated from `Abdur-Rahman bin Ghanm Al-Ash`ari that he said, “I recorded for `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, the terms of the treaty of peace he conducted with the Christians of Ash-Sham: `In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is a document to the servant of Allah `Umar, the Leader of the faithful, from the Christians of such and such city. When you (Muslims) came to us we requested safety for ourselves, children, property and followers of our religion. We made a condition on ourselves that we will neither erect in our areas a monastery, church, or a sanctuary for a monk, nor restore any place of worship that needs restoration nor use any of them for the purpose of enmity against Muslims. We will not prevent any Muslim from resting in our churches whether they come by day or night, and we will open the doors (of our houses of worship) for the wayfarer and passerby. Those Muslims who come as guests, will enjoy boarding and food for three days. We will not allow a spy against Muslims into our churches and homes or hide deceit (or betrayal) against Muslims. We will not teach our children the Qur’an, publicize practices of Shirk, invite anyone to Shirk or prevent any of our fellows from embracing Islam, if they choose to do so. We will respect Muslims, move from the places we sit in if they choose to sit in them. We will not imitate their clothing, caps, turbans, sandals, hairstyles, speech, nicknames and title names, or ride on saddles, hang swords on the shoulders, collect weapons of any kind or carry these weapons. We will not encrypt our stamps in Arabic, or sell liquor. We will have the front of our hair cut, wear our customary clothes wherever we are, wear belts around our waist, refrain from erecting crosses on the outside of our churches and demonstrating them and our books in public in Muslim fairways and markets. We will not sound the bells in our churches, except discretely, or raise our voices while reciting our holy books inside our churches in the presence of Muslims, nor raise our voices (with prayer) at our funerals, or light torches in funeral processions in the fairways of Muslims, or their markets. We will not bury our dead next to Muslim dead, or buy servants who were captured by Muslims. We will be guides for Muslims and refrain from breaching their privacy in their homes.’ When I gave this document to `Umar, he added to it, `We will not beat any Muslim. These are the conditions that we set against ourselves and followers of our religion in return for safety and protection. If we break any of these promises that we set for your benefit against ourselves, then our Dhimmah (promise of protection) is broken and you are allowed to do with us what you are allowed of people of defiance and rebellion.”’

95) 9:036-The number of months in the sight of God is twelve (in a year) – so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that God is with those who restrain themselves.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Bakrah said that the Prophet said in a speech during his Hajj,

(The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred: Three are in succession Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha`ban.” The Prophet then asked, (What is the day today’) We said, “Allah and His Messenger know better. He kept quiet until we thought that he might give that day another name. He said (Isn’t it the day of Nahr) We replied, “Yes.” He further asked, (Which month is this) We again said, “Allah and His Messenger know better,” and he kept quiet and made us think that he might give it another name. Then he said,(Isn’t it the month of Dhul-Hijjah) We replied, “Yes.” He asked, (What town is this) We said, “Allah and His Messenger know better,” and he kept quiet until we thought that he might change its name. He asked, (Isn’t this the (Sacred) Town) We said, “Yes.” He said,

(Verily! Your blood, property and honor are sacred to one another like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours and in this city of yours. Verily, you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your actions. Behold! Do not revert to misguidance after me by striking the necks of one another. Have I conveyed It is incumbent upon those who are present to inform those who are absent, because those who are absent might comprehend (what I have said) better than some who are present.) Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. In a small book collected by Shaykh `Alam ad-Din As-Sakhawi, entitled, Al-Mashhur fi Asma’ Al-Ayam wash-Shuhur, he mentioned that Muharram is so named because it is a sacred month. To me, it was so named to emphasize its sacredness. This is because the Arabs would switch it around. One year they would say it was a sacred month, the following year they would say that it was not. The author said, “…and Safar is so named because they used to leave their homes during that month for fighting and traveling. When saying `Safir’ a place, it means to leave it… Rabi` Al-Awwal is called that because they used to do Irtiba` in it, that is to maintain one’s property… and Rabi` Al-Akhir, was so named for the same reasons. Jumada is called that because the water would dry up (Jamud) then….They say Jumada Al-Uwla and Al-Awwal, or Jumada Al-Akhar or Al-Akhirah. Rajab comes from Tarjib, meaning to honor. Sha`ban because the tribes would separate and return to their homes. Ramadan was so named because of the severity of the Ramda’ – that is – the heat, and they say that the branch Ramadat when it is thirsty…And the saying that it is a Name of Allah is a mistake, for there is no proof or support for that…”

Allah said,

of them four are sacred:

The Arabs used to consider these months sacred during the time of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of them called Al-Basl, who held eight months of the year to be sacred as way of exaggeration in religion. The Prophet said,

(Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab) of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thani)) and Sha`ban). The Prophet said “Rajab of Mudar” to attest to the custom of Mudar, in saying that Rajab is the month that is between Jumada and Sha`ban, not as the tribe of Rabi`ah thought, that it is between Sha`ban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in the present calendar. The four Sacred Months were made four, three in succession and one alone, so that the Hajj and `Umrah are performed with ease. Dhul-Qa`dah, the month before the Hajj month, was made sacred because they refrained from fighting during that month. Dhul-Hijjah, the next month, was made sacred because it is the month of Hajj, during which they performed Hajj rituals. Muharram, which comes next, was made sacred so that they are able to go back to their areas in safety (after performing Hajj). Rajab, in the middle of the lunar year, was made sacred so that those coming from the farthest areas of Arabia are able to perform `Umrah and visit the House and then go back to their areas safely. Allah said next,

that is the straight usage.

that is the Straight Law, requiring implementing Allah’s order concerning the months that He made sacred and their true count as it was originally written by Allah. Allah said,

So wrong not yourselves therein,

during these Sacred Months, for sin in them is worse than sin in other months. Likewise, sins in the Sacred City are written multiplied,

(…and whoever inclines to evil actions therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment) (22:25). Similarly, sin in general is worse during the Sacred Months `Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, Allah’s statement,

The number of months in the sight of God

is connected to

So wrong not yourselves therein,

“In all (twelve) months. Allah then chose four out of these months and made them sacred, emphasizing their sanctity, making sinning in them greater, in addition to, multiplying rewards of righteous deeds during them.” Qatadah said about Allah’s statement,

So wrong not yourselves therein,

“Injustice during the Sacred Months is worse and graver than injustice in other months. Verily, injustice is always wrong, but Allah makes things graver than others as He will.” He also said, “Allah has chosen some of His creation above others. He chose Messengers from angels and from men. He also chose His Speech above all speech, the Masajid above other areas of the earth, Ramadan and the Sacred Months above all months, Friday above the other days and Laylatul-Qadr (The Night of Decree) above all nights. Therefore, sanctify what Allah has sanctified, for doing so is the practice of people of understanding and comprehension.”

Allah said,

and fight the Pagans all together

all of you,

as they fight you all together.

all of them,

But know that God is with those who restrain themselves.

and know that initiating battle during the Sacred Months is forbidden. Allah said in other Ayat,

(O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month.) (5:2),

(The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him) (2:194), and,

(Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators…) (9:5). As for Allah’s statement,

and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together.

it includes permission for the believers to fight the idolators in the Sacred Month, if the idolators initiate hostilities therein. Allah said in other Ayat,

(The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas)) (2:194), and,

(And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them.) (2:191). As for the Messenger of Allah laying siege to At-Ta’if until the Sacred Month started, it was a continuation of the battle against Hawazin and their allies from Thaqif. They started the fighting and gathered their men for the purpose of conducting war. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them and when they took refuge in At-Ta’if, the Prophet laid siege to them so that they descend from their forts, but they inflicted casualties on Muslims. The siege continued for about forty days, during which a Sacred Month began, and the siege continued for several days in that month. The Messenger broke the siege and went back (to Makkah). So fighting that carries over into it (the Sacred Month) is not the same as initiating warfare during it, Allah knows best.

96) 9:038-O ye who believe! what is the matter with you, that, when ye are asked to go forth in the cause of God, ye cling heavily to the earth? Do ye prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter.

97) 9:039-Unless ye go forth, He will punish you with a grievous penalty, and put others in your place; but Him ye would not harm in the least. For God hath power over all things.

Allah admonishes those who lagged behind the Messenger of Allah in the battle of Tabuk, at a time when fruits were ripe and shades tempting in the intense and terrible heat,

(9:038)O ye who believe! what is the matter with you, that, when ye are asked to go forth in the cause of God,

if you are called to perform Jihad in the cause of Allah,

ye cling heavily to the earth?

reclining to remain in peace, shade and ripe fruits.

Do ye prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter?

why do you do this, is it because you prefer this life instead of the Hereafter Allah next diminishes the eagerness for this worldly life and increases it for the Hereafter,

But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mustawrid, a member of Bani Fihr, said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The life of this world, compared to the Hereafter, is just like when one of you dips his finger in the sea, let him contemplate how much of it his finger would carry.) The Prophet pointed with his index finger. Muslim collected this Hadith. Ath-Thawri narrated that Al-A`mash said about the Ayah,

But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter.

“What compares to the provision a traveler takes.” `Abdul-`Aziz bin Abi Hazim narrated that his father said, “When `Abdul-`Aziz bin Marwan was dying he said, `Bring the shroud I will be covered with so that I inspect it.’ When it was placed before him, he looked at it and said, `Is this what I will end up with from this life’ He then turned his back and cried, while saying, `Woe to you, O life! Your abundance is truly little, your little is short lived, we were deceived by you.”’ Allah warns those who do not join Jihad,

(9:039)Unless ye go forth, He will punish you with a grievous penalty,

Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah’s Messenger called some Arabs to mobilize, but they lagged behind and Allah witheld rain from coming down on them, and this was their torment.” Allah said,

and put others in your place;

who will give aid to His Prophet and establish his religion. Allah said in another Ayah,

(And if you turn away (from the obedience to Allah), He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes.) (47:38)

but Him ye would not harm in the least.

you can never harm Allah when you lag behind and stay away from joining Jihad,

For God hath power over all things.

He is able to destroy the enemies without your help.

98) 9:041-Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the cause of God. That is best for you, if ye (but) knew.

Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from his father from Abu Ad-Duha, Muslim bin Subayh, who said, “This Ayah,

Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily,

was the first part to be revealed from Surah Bara’ah.” Mu`tamir bin Sulayman narrated that his father said, “Hadrami claimed that he was told that some people used to declare that they will not gain sin (if they lag behind the forces of Jihad) because they are ill or old. This Ayah was revealed,

Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily,

Allah commanded mass mobilization together with the Messenger of Allah for the battle of Tabuk, to fight the disbelieving, People of the Book, the Romans, Allah’s enemies. Allah ordained that the believers all march forth with the Messenger regardless whether they felt active, lazy, at ease or had difficult circumstances,

Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily,

`Ali bin Zayd narrated that Anas said that Abu Talhah commented (on this Ayah), “Whether you are old or young, Allah did not leave an excuse for anyone.” Abu Talhah marched to Ash-Sham and fought until he was killed. In another narration, Abu Talhah recited Surah Bara’ah until he reached this Ayah,

Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the cause of God.

He then said, “I see that Allah had called us to mobilize whether we are old or young. O my children! Prepare my supplies.” His children said, `May Allah grant you His mercy! You conducted Jihad along with the Messenger of Allah until he died, then with Abu Bakr until he died, then with `Umar until he died. Let us perform Jihad in your place.” Abu Talhah refused and he went to the sea (under the command of Mu`awiyah) where he died. They could not find an island to bury him on until nine days later, during which his body did not deteriorate or change and they buried him on the island. As-Suddi said,

Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily,

whether you are rich, poor, strong, or weak. A man came forward, and he was fat, complained, and asked for permission to stay behind (from Jihad), but the Prophet refused. Then this Ayah,

Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily,

was revealed, and it became hard on the people. So Allah abrogated it with this Ayah,

(There is no blame on those who are weak or ill or who find no resources to spend, if they are sincere and true (in duty) to Allah and His Messenger)) 9:91(.” Ibn Jarir said that Hibban bin Zayd Ash-Shar`abi narrated to him, “We mobilized our forces with Safwan bin `Amr, who was the governor of Hims towards the city of Ephsos appointed to the Jerajima Christian expatriates (in Syria). I saw among the army an old, yet active man, whose eyebrows had sunk over his eyes (from old age), from the residents of Damascus, riding on his animal. I said to him, `O uncle! Allah has given you an excuse (to lag behind).’ He said, `O my nephew! Allah has mobilized us whether we are light or heavy. Verily, those whom Allah loves, He tests them. Then to Allah is their return and eternal dwelling. Allah tests from His servants whoever thanks (Him) and observes patience and remembrance of Him, all the while worshipping Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, and worshipping none else.”’ Next, Allah encourages spending in His cause and striving with one’s life in His pleasure and the pleasure of His Messenger ,

and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the cause of God. That is best for you, if ye (but) knew.

Allah says, this is better for you in this life and the Hereafter. You might spend small amounts, but Allah will reward you the property of your enemy in this life, as well as, the honor that He will keep for you in the Hereafter. The Prophet said,

(Allah promised the Mujahid in His cause that if He brings death to him, He will enter him into Paradise. Or, He will return him to his house with whatever reward and war spoils he earns.) So Allah said;

(Jihad is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.))2:216( Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said to a man,

(Embrace Islam,) but the man said, “I dislike doing so.” The Messenger said,

(Embrace Islam even if you dislike it).”

99) 9:044-Those who believe in God and the Last Day ask thee for no exemption from fighting with their goods and persons. And God knoweth well those who do their duty.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Awn said, “Have you heard criticism softer than this, starting with forgiveness before criticism,

(9:043. May Allah forgive you. Why did you grant them leave…)” Muwarriq Al-`Ijli and others said similarly. Qatadah said, “Allah criticized him as you read here, then later revealed to him the permission to allow them to lag behind if he wants, in Surat An-Nur,

(So if they ask your permission for some affairs of theirs, give permission to whom you will of them) (24:62).” `Ata’ Al-Khurasani said similarly. Mujahid said, “This Ayah was revealed about some people who said, `Ask permission from the Messenger of Allah (to stay behind), and whether he agrees, or disagrees, remain behind!”’ Allah said,

(…until those who told the truth were manifest to you), in reference to valid excuses,

(and you had known the liars) Allah says, `Why did you not refuse to give them permission to remain behind when they asked you, so that you know those who truly obey you and the liars, who were intent on remaining behind even if you do not give them permission to do so, Allah asserts that none who believe in Allah and His Messenger seek his permission to remain behind from fighting,

(would not ask your leave), to stay behind from Jihad,

(9:044)Those who believe in God and the Last Day ask thee for no exemption from fighting with their goods and persons.

because they consider Jihad an act of worship. This is why when Allah called them to perform Jihad, they obeyed and hasten to act in His obedience,

And God knoweth well those who do their duty.

to remain behind, without a valid excuse,

Those who believe in God and the Last Day

they do not hope for Allah’s reward in the Hereafter for their good actions,

(and whose hearts are in doubt), about the validity of what you brought them,

(so in their doubts they waver.) They waver in doubt, taking one step forward and one step back. They do not have a firm stance in anything, for they are unsure and destroyed, neither belonging to these nor to those. Verily, those whom Allah misguides, will never find a way for themselves to guidance.

100) 9:052-Say: “Can you expect for us (any fate) other than one of two glorious things – (Martyrdom or victory)? But we can expect for you either that God will send his punishment from Himself, or by our hands. So wait (expectant) we too will wait with you.”

Say:

O Muhammad to them,

“Can you expect for us

(any fate)

other than one of two glorious things –

martyrdom or victory over you, according to the meaning given by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, and others.

But we can expect for you

that this will touch you,

either that God will send his punishment from Himself, or by our hands.

either capture or killing,

So wait (expectant) we too will wait with you.”

101) 9:073-O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell, – an evil refuge indeed.

Allah commanded His Messenger to strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and to be harsh against them. Allah also commanded him to be merciful with the believers who followed him, informing him that the destination of the disbelievers and hypocrites is the Fire in the Hereafter. Ibn Mas`ud commented on Allah’s statement,

strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites

“With the hand, or at least have a stern face with them.” Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah commanded the Prophet to fight the disbelievers with the sword, to strive against the hypocrites with the tongue and annulled lenient treatment of them.” Ad-Dahhak commented, “Perform Jihad against the disbelievers with the sword and be harsh with the hypocrites with words, and this is the Jihad performed against them.” Similar was said by Muqatil and Ar-Rabi`. Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, “Striving against them includes establishing the (Islamic Penal) Law of equality against them.” In combining these statements, we could say that Allah causes punishment of the disbelievers and hypocrites with all of these methods in various conditions and situations, and Allah knows best.

102) 9:081-Those who were left behind (in the Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the Apostle of God: they hated to strive and fight, with their goods and their persons, in the cause of God: they said, “Go not forth in the heat.” Say, “The fire of Hell is fiercer in heat.” If only they could understand!

Allah admonishes the hypocrites who lagged behind from the battle of Tabuk with the Companions of the Messenger of Allah , rejoicing that they remained behind after the Messenger departed for the battle,

they hated to strive and fight,

along with the Messenge ,

with their goods and their persons, in the cause of God: they said,

to each other,

“Go not forth in the heat.”

Tabuk occurred at a time when the heat was intense and the fruits and shades became delightful. This is why they said,

“Go not forth in the heat.”

Allah said to His Messenger ,

Say,

to them,

“The fire of Hell

which will be your destination because of your disobedience,

is fiercer in heat.”

than the heat that you sought to avoid; it is even more intense than fire. Imam Malik narrated that Abu Az-Zinad said that Al-A`raj narrated that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The fire that the son of Adam kindles is but one part of seventy parts of the Fire of Jahannam.) They said, “O Allah’s Messenger! This fire alone is enough.” He said,

((Hellfire) was favored by sixty-nine parts.) The Two Sahihs collected this Hadith. Al-A`mash narrated that Abu Ishaq said that An-Nu`man bin Bashir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(On the Day of Resurrection, the person who will receive the least punishment among the people of the Fire, wears two slippers made from the Fire of Jahannam causing his brain to boil, just as a pot boils. He thinks that none in the Fire is receiving a more severe torment than he, when in fact he is receiving the least torment.) The Two Sahihs collected this Hadith. There are many other Ayat and Prophetic Hadiths on this subject. Allah said in His Glorious Book,

(By no means! Verily, it will be the Fire of Hell. Taking away (burning completely) the scalp!))70:15-16(,

(Al-Hamim (boiling water) will be poured down over their heads. With it will melt (or vanish away) what is within their bellies, as well as (their) skins. And for them are hooked rods of iron (to punish them). Every time they seek to get away therefrom, from anguish, they will be driven back therein, and (it will be said to them): “Taste the torment of burning!”) )22:19-22(, and,

(Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat, We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment.))4:56( Allah said here,

Say, “The fire of Hell is fiercer in heat.” If only they could understand!

meaning, if they have any comprehension or understanding, they would have marched with the Messenger of Allah during the heat, so as to save themselves from the Fire of Jahannam, which is much more severe. Allah, the Exalted, then warns the hypocrites against their conduct,

(9:082. So let them laugh a little…) Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented, “Life is short, so let them laugh as much as they like in it. But when life ends and they are returned to Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, they will start crying forever without end.”

103) 9:083-If, then, God bring thee back to any of them, and they ask thy permission to come out (with thee), say: “Never shall ye come out with me, nor fight an enemy with me: for ye preferred to sit inactive on the first occasion: Then sit ye (now) with those who lag behind.”

Allah commands His Messenger, peace be upon him,

If, then, God bring thee back

from this battle,

to any of them,

in reference to the twelve (hypocrite) men, according to Qatadah,

and they ask thy permission to come out (with thee),

with you to another battle,

say: “Never shall ye come out with me, nor fight an enemy with me:

as an admonishment and punishment for them. Allah mentioned the reason for this decision,

for ye preferred to sit inactive on the first occasion:

Allah said in a similar Ayah,

(And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away (from guidance), as they refused to believe therein for the first time. ) (6:110) The recompense of an evil deed includes being directed to follow it with another evil deed, while the reward of a good deed includes being directed to another good deed after it. For instance, Allah said concerning the `Umrah of Hudaybiyyah,

(Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils.)(48:15) Allah said next,

Then sit ye (now) with those who lag behind.”

in reference to the men who lagged behind from (Tabuk) battle, according to Ibn `Abbas.

104) 9:086-When a Sura comes down, enjoining them to believe in God and to strive and fight along with His Apostle, those with wealth and influence among them ask thee for exemption, and say: “Leave us (behind): we would be with those who sit (at home).”

Allah chastises and admonishes those who stayed away from Jihad and refrained from performing it, even though they had the supplies, means and ability to join it. They asked the Messenger for permission to stay behind, saying,

“Leave us (behind): we would be with those who sit (at home).”

thus accepting for themselves the shame of lagging behind with women, after the army had left. If war starts, such people are the most cowardice, but when it is safe, they are the most boastful among men. Allah described them in another Ayah,

(Then when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes revolving like (those of) one over whom hovers death; but when the fear departs, they will smite you with sharp tongues.))33:19( their tongues direct their harsh words against you, when it is safe to do so. In battle, however, they are the most cowardice among men. Allah said in another Ayah,

(Those who believe say: “Why is not a Surah sent down (for us) But when a decisive Surah (explaining and ordering things) is sent down, and fighting is mentioned therein, you will see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at you with a look of one fainting to death. But it was better for them. Obedience (to Allah) and good words (were better for them). And when the matter is resolved on, then if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.) )47:20-21( sAllah said next,

(9:087. Their hearts are sealed up) because of their staying away from Jihad and from accompanying the Messenger in Allah’s cause,

(so they understand not.) they neither understand what benefits them so that they perform it nor what hurts them so that they avoid it.

105) 9:088-But the Apostle, and those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons: for them are (all) good things: and it is they who will prosper.

But the Apostle, and those who believe with him, strive and fight

until the end of these two Ayat )9:88-89(. This describes the qualities, as well as, the reward of faithful believers. Allah said,

for them are (all) good things:

in the Hereafter, in the gardens of Al-Firdaws and the high grades.

106) 9:092-Nor (is there blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mounts, and when thou saidst, “I can find no mounts for you,” they turned back, their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they had no resources wherewith to provide the expenses.

Allah mentions here the valid excuses that permit one to stay away from fighting. He first mentions the excuses that remain with a person, the weakness in the body that disallows one from Jihad, such as blindness, limping, and so forth. He then mentions the excuses that are not permanent, such as an illness that would prevent one from fighting in the cause of Allah, or poverty that prevents preparing for Jihad. There is no sin in these cases if they remain behind, providing that when they remain behind, they do not spread malice or try to discourage Muslims from fighting, but all the while observing good behavior in this state, just as Allah said,

(9:091. No means (of complaint) can there be against the doers of good.) O Allah! We admit our errors, so forgive us and give us mercy and rain.’ He then raised his hands and the people also raised their hands, and rain was sent down on them.” Mujahid said about Allah’s statement,

(9:092)Nor (is there blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mounts,

Mujahid said; “It was revealed about Bani Muqarrin from the tribe of Muzaynah. ” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Al-Hasan said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Some people have remained behind you in Al-Madinah; and you never spent anything, crossed a valley, or afflicted hardship on an enemy, but they were sharing the reward with you.) He then recited the Ayah,

Nor (is there blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mounts, and when thou saidst, “I can find no mounts for you,”

This Hadith has a basis in the Two Sahihs from Anas, the Messenger of Allah said,

(Some people have remained behind in Al-Madinah and you never crossed a valley or marched forth, but they were with you.) They said, “While they are still at Al-Madinah” He said,

(Yes, as they have been held back by a (legal) excuse.) Then, Allah criticized those who seek permission to remain behind while they are rich, admonishing them for wanting to stay behind with women who remained in their homes,

(9:093. and Allah has sealed up their hearts, so that they know not (what they are losing).)

107) 9:111-God hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur’an: and who is more faithful to his covenant than God? then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme.

Allah states that He has compensated His believing servants for their lives and wealth — if they give them up in His cause — with Paradise. This demonstrates Allah’s favor, generosity and bounty, for He has accepted the good that He already owns and bestowed, as a price from His faithful servants. Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah commented, “By Allah! Allah has purchased them and raised their worth.” Shimr bin `Atiyyah said, “There is not a Muslim but has on his neck a sale that he must conduct with Allah; he either fulfills its terms or dies without doing that.” He then recited this Ayah. This is why those who fight in the cause of Allah are said to have conducted the sale with Allah, meaning, accepted and fulfilled his covenant. Allah’s statement,

they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain:

indicates that whether they were killed or they kill the enemy, or both, then Paradise will be theirs. The Two Sahihs recorded the Hadith,

(Allah has made a promise to the person who goes out (to fight) in His cause; `And nothing compels him to do so except Jihad = in My Cause and belief in My Messengers. ‘ He will either be admitted to Paradise if he dies, or compensated by Allah, either with a reward or booty if He returns him to the home which he departed from.) Allah’s statement,

a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur’an:

affirms this promise and informs us that Allah has decreed this for His Most Honorable Self, and revealed it to His Messengers in His Glorious Books, the Tawrah that He sent down to Musa, the Injil that He sent down to `Isa, and the Qur’an that was sent down to Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on them all. Allah said next,

and who is more faithful to his covenant than God?

affirming that He never breaks a promise. Allah said in similar statements,

(And who is truer in statement than Allah))4:87(, and,

(And whose words can be truer than those of Allah))4:122(. Allah said next,

then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme.

meaning, let those who fulfill the terms of this contract and uphold this covenant receive the good news of great success and everlasting delight.

108) 9:120-It was not fitting for the people of Medina and the Bedouin Arabs of the neighbourhood, to refuse to follow God’s Apostle, nor to prefer their own lives to his: because nothing could they suffer or do, but was reckoned to their credit as a deed of righteousness, – whether they suffered thirst, or fatigue, or hunger, in the cause of God, or trod paths to raise the ire of the Unbelievers, or received any injury whatever from an enemy: for God suffereth not the reward to be lost of those who do good; –

Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, criticizes the people of Al-Madinah and the bedouins around it, who did not participate in the battle of Tabuk with the Messenger of Allah . They sought to preserve themselves rather than comfort the Messenger during the hardship that he suffered in that battle. They incurred a loss in their share of the reward, since,

(they suffer neither Zama’), thirst,

(nor Nasab), fatigue,

(nor Makhmasah), hunger,

or trod paths to raise the ire of the Unbelievers,

by strategies of war that would terrify their enemy,

or received any injury whatever from an enemy:

a defeat on the enemy,

but was reckoned to their credit

as compensation for these steps that are not under their control, but a consequence of performing good deeds that earn them tremendous rewards,

for God suffereth not the reward to be lost of those who do good; –

Allah said in a similar Ayah,

(Certainly We shall not make the reward of anyone who does his (righteous) deeds in the most perfect manner to be lost)

(9:121. Neither do they spend any contribution — small or great — nor cross a valley, but is written to their credit that Allah may recompense them with the best of what they used to do.) Allah said next,

(Neither do they spend), in reference to the fighters in Allah’s cause,

(any contribution — small or great –), with regards to its amount,

(nor cross a valley), while marching towards the enemy,

(but is written to their credit), for these actions that they take )and which are under their control(.,

(that Allah may recompense them with the best of what they used to do.) Certainly, the Leader of the faithful, `Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, acquired a tremendous share of the virtues mentioned in this honorable Ayah. He spent large amounts and tremendous wealth on this battle (Tabuk). Abdullah, the son of Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Khabbab As-Sulami said; “The Messenger of Allah gave a speech in which he encouraged spending on the army of distress (for Tabuk). I`Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him said; `I will give one hundred camels with their saddles and supplies.’ Then he exhorted them some more. So `Uthman said; `I will give one hundred more camels with their saddles and supplies.’ Then he descended one step of the Minbar and exhorted them some more. So `Uthman bin `Affan said; `I will give one hundred more camels with their saddles and supplies.’ Then I saw Allah’s Messenger with his hand moving like this – and `Abdus-Samad’s )one of the narrators( hand went out like one in amazement – he said,

(It does not matter what `Uthman does after. ) It is also recorded in the Musnad that `Abdur-Rahman bin Samurah said, “`Uthman brought a thousand Dinars in his garment so that the Prophet could prepare supplies for the army of distress. `Uthman poured the money on the Prophet’s lap, and the Prophet started turning it around with his hand and declaring repeatedly,

(The son of `Affan (i.e., `Uthman) will never be harmed by anything he does after today.)” Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,

(nor cross a valley, but is written to their credit), “The farther any people march forth away from their families in the cause of Allah, the nearer they will be to Allah.”

109) 9:122-Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion, and admonish the people when they return to them, – that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).

We should first mention that a group of the Salaf said that marching along with the Messenger , when he went to battle, was at first obliged on all Muslims, because, as they say, Allah said,

(March forth, whether you are light or heavy) )9:41(, and,

(It was not becoming of the people of Al-Madinah and the bedouins of the neighborhood…) )9:120(. However, they said, Allah abrogated this ruling (9:41 and 9:120) when He revealed this Ayah, )9:122(. However, we could say that this Ayah explains Allah’s order to participate in battle on all Arab neighborhoods, that at least a group of every tribe should march for Jihad. Those who went with the Messenger would gain instructions and studies in the revelation that came down to him, and warn their people about that battle when they returned to them. This way, the group that went with the Prophet will achieve both goals )Jihad and learning the revelation from the Prophet ). After the Prophet , a group of every tribe or neighborhood should seek religious knowledge or perform Jihad, for in this case, Jihad is required from at least a part of each Muslim community. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas about the Ayah,

Nor should the Believers all go forth together:

“The believers should not all go to battle and leave the Prophet alone,

if a contingent from every expedition remained behind,

in the expeditions that the Prophet sent. When these armies returned to the Prophet, who in the meantime received revealed parts of the Qur’an from Allah, the group who remained with the Prophet would have learned that revelation from him. They would say, `Allah has revealed some parts of the Qur’an to your Prophet and we learned it.’ So they learned from them what Allah revealed to His Prophet in their absence, while the Prophet sent some other men into military expeditions. Hence Allah’s statement,

they could devote themselves to studies in religion,

so that they learn what Allah has revealed to their Prophet and teach the armies when they return,

that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves

Mujahid said, “This Ayah was revealed about some of the Companions of the Prophet who went to the desert and were helped by its residents, had a good rainy year and called whomever they met to guidance. The people said to them, `We see that you left your companions and came to us.’ They felt bad in themselves because of this and they all came back from the desert to the Prophet . Allah said,

if a contingent from every expedition remained behind,

those who seek righteousness )such as to spread the call of Islam, while others remain behind(,

they could devote themselves to studies in religion,

and learn what Allah has revealed,

and admonish the people

when those who went forth returned to them,

that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).

Qatadah said about this Ayah, “It is about when the Messenger of Allah sent an army; Allah commanded them to go into battle, while another group remained with the Messenger of Allah to gain instructions in the religion. Another group returns to its own people to call them (to Allah) and warn them against Allah’s punishment of those who were before them.” It was also said that this verse,

Nor should the Believers all go forth together:

is not about joining Jihad. They say that the Messenger of Allah invoked Allah against Mudar to try them with years of famine, and their lands were struck by famine. The various tribes among them started to come, entire tribes at a time, to Al-Madinah, because of the hardship they faced and they would falsely claim that they are Muslims. This caused hardship for the Companions of the Messenger and Allah revealed to him that they are not believers. The Messenger of Allah sent them back to their tribes and warned their people not to repeat what they did. Hence Allah’s statement,

and admonish the people when they return to them,

110) 9:123-O ye who believe! fight the unbelievers who gird you about, and let them find firmness in you: and know that God is with those who fear Him.

Allah commands the believers to fight the disbelievers, the closest in area to the Islamic state, then the farthest. This is why the Messenger of Allah started fighting the idolators in the Arabian Peninsula. When he finished with them and Allah gave him control over Makkah, Al-Madinah, At-Ta’if, Yemen, Yamamah, Hajr, Khaybar, Hadramawt and other Arab provinces, and the various Arab tribes entered Islam in large crowds, he then started fighting the People of the Scriptures. He began preparations to fight the Romans who were the closest in area to the Arabian Peninsula, and as such, had the most right to be called to Islam, especially since they were from the People of the Scriptures. The Prophet marched until he reached Tabuk and went back because of the extreme hardship, little rain and little supplies. This battle occurred on the ninth year after his Hijrah. In the tenth year, the Messenger of Allah was busy with the Farewell Hajj. The Messenger died eighty-one days after he returned from that Hajj, Allah chose him for what He had prepared for him )in Paradise(. After his death, his executor, friend, and Khalifah, Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, became the leader. At that time, the religion came under attack and would have been defeated, if it had not been for the fact that Allah gave the religion firmness through Abu Bakr, who established its basis and made its foundations firm. He brought those who strayed from the religion back to it, and made those who reverted from Islam return. He took the Zakah from the evil people who did not want to pay it, and explained the truth to those who were unaware of it. On behalf of the Prophet , Abu Bakr delivered what he was entrusted with. Then, he started preparing the Islamic armies to fight the Roman cross worshippers, and the Persian fire worshippers. By the blessing of his mission, Allah opened the lands for him and brought down Caesar and Kisra and those who obeyed them among the servants. Abu Bakr spent their treasures in the cause of Allah, just as the Messenger of Allah had foretold would happen. This mission continued after Abu Bakr at the hands of he whom Abu Bakr chose to be his successor, Al-Faruq, the Martyr of the Mihrab, Abu Hafs, `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him. With `Umar, Allah humiliated the disbelievers, suppressed the tyrants and hypocrites, and opened the eastern and western parts of the world. The treasures of various countries were brought to `Umar from near and far provinces, and he divided them according to the legitimate and accepted method. `Umar then died as a martyr after he lived a praise worthy life. Then, the Companions among the Muhajirin and Ansar agreed to chose after `Umar, `Uthman bin `Affan, Leader of the faithful and Martyr of the House, may Allah be pleased with him. During `Uthman’s reign, Islam wore its widest garment and Allah’s unequivocal proof was established in various parts of the world over the necks of the servants. Islam appeared in the eastern and western parts of the world and Allah’s Word was elevated and His religion apparent. The pure religion reached its deepest aims against Allah’s enemies, and whenever Muslims overcame an Ummah, they moved to the next one, and then the next one, crushing the tyranical evil doers. They did this in reverence to Allah’s statement,

O ye who believe! fight the unbelievers who gird you about,

Allah said next,

and let them find firmness in you:

meaning, let the disbelievers find harshness in you against them in battle. The complete believer is he who is kind to his believing brother, and harsh with his disbelieving enemy. Allah said in other Ayah,

(Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers…))5:54(,

(Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against the disbelievers, and merciful among themselves.))48:29(, and,

(O Prophet! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be harsh against them.))9:73( Allah said,

and know that God is with those who fear Him.

meaning, fight the disbelievers and trust in Allah knowing that Allah is with you if you fear and obey Him. This was the case in the first three blessed generations of Islam, the best members of this Ummah. Since they were firm on the religion and reached an unsurpassed level of obedience to Allah, they consistently prevailed over their enemies. During that era, victories were abundant, and enemies were ever more in a state of utter loss and degradation. However, after the turmoil began, desires and divisions became prevalent between various Muslim kings, the enemies were eager to attack the outposts of Islam and marched into its territory without much opposition. Then, the Muslim kings were too busy with their enmity for each other. The disbelievers then marched to the capital cities of the Islamic states, after gaining control over many of its areas, in addition to entire Islamic lands. Verily, ownership of all affairs is with Allah in the beginning and in the end. Whenever a just Muslim king stood up and obeyed Allah’s orders, all the while trusting in Allah, Allah helped him regain control over some Muslim lands and took back from the enemy what was compatible to his obedience and support to Allah. We ask Allah to help the Muslims gain control over the forelocks of His disbeliever enemies and to raise high the word of Muslims over all lands. Verily, Allah is Most Generous, Most Giving.

111) 16:110-But verily thy Lord, – to those who leave their homes after trials and persecutions, – and who thereafter strive and fight for the faith and patiently persevere, – Thy Lord, after all this is oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

This refers to another group of people who were oppressed in Makkah and whose position with their own people was weak, so they went along with them when they were tried by them. Then they managed to escape by emigrating, leaving their homeland, families and wealth behind, seeking the pleasure and forgiveness of Allah. They joined the believers and fought with them against the disbelievers, bearing hardship with patience. Allah tells them that after this, meaning after their giving in when put to the test, He will forgive them and show mercy to them when they are resurrected.

((16:111. Remember) the Day when every person will come pleading) meaning making a case in his own defence.

(for himself.) means, no one else will plead on his behalf; not his father, not his son, nor his brother, nor his wife.

(and every one will be paid in full for what he did,) meaning whatever he did, good or evil. (and they will not be dealt with unjustly.) meaning there will be no decrease in the reward for good, and no increase in the punishment for evil. They will not be dealt with unjustly in the slightest way.

112) 22:039-To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; – and verily, God is most powerful for their aid; –

Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “This was revealed about Muhammad and his Companions, when they were expelled from Makkah.” Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and others among the Salaf, such as Ibn `Abbas, `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Zayd bin Aslam, Muqatil bin Hayan, Qatadah and others said, “This is the first Ayah which was revealed about Jihad.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “When the Prophet was driven out of Makkah, Abu Bakr said, `They have their Prophet. Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return; surely they are doomed.”’ Ibn `Abbas said, “Then Allah revealed the words:

To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; – and verily, God is most powerful for their aid; –

Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Then I knew that there would be fighting.” Imam Ahmad added: “Ibn `Abbas said, `This was the first Ayah to be revealed concerning fighting.”’ This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i in the Book of Tafsir of their Sunans. At-Tirmidhi said: “It is a Hasan Hadith.”

and verily, God is most powerful for their aid

means, He is able to grant victory to His believing servants without any fighting taking place, but He wants His servants to strive their utmost in obeying Him, as He says:

(So, when you meet those who disbelieve, strike necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly. Thereafter either for generosity, or ransom, until war lays down its burden. Thus, but if it had been Allah’s will, He Himself could certainly have punished them. But (He lets you fight) in order to test some of you with others. But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost. He will guide them and set right their state. And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them.) )47:4-6(

(Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands, and disgrace them, and give you victory over them, and heal the breasts of a believing people, and remove the anger of their (believers’) hearts. Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.) )9:14-15(

(And surely, We shall try you till We test those who strive hard and the patient, and We shall test your facts.) )47:31(. And there are many similar Ayat. Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

and verily, God is most powerful for their aid

And this is what He did.” Allah prescribed Jihad at an appropriate time, because when they were in Makkah, the idolators outnumbered them by more than ten to one. Were they to engage in fighting at that time, the results would have been disastrous. When the idolators went to extremes to persecute Muslims, to expel the Prophet and resolving to kill him; when they sent his Companions into exile here and there, so that some went to Ethiopia and others went to Al-Madinah; when they settled in Al-Madinah and the Messenger of Allah joined them there, and they gathered around him and lent him their support, and they had a place where Islam prevailed, and a stronghold to which they could retreat; then Allah prescribed Jihad against the enemy, and this was the first Ayah to be revealed for it. Allah said:

To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; – and verily, God is most powerful for their aid

Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said; “They were driven out of Makkah to Al-Madinah unjustly, i.e., Muhammad and his Companions.”

113) 22:058-Those who leave their homes in the cause of God, and are then slain or die, – On them will God bestow verily a goodly Provision: Truly God is He Who bestows the best provision.

Allah tells us that those who migrate for the sake of Allah, seeking to earn His pleasure and that which is with Him, leaving behind their homelands, families and friends, leaving their countries for the sake of Allah and His Messenger to support His religion, then they are killed, i.e., in Jihad, or they die, i.e., they pass away without being involved in fighting, they will have earned an immense reward. As Allah says:

(And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely incumbent upon Allah) )4:100(

On them will God bestow verily a goodly Provision:

means, He will reward them from His bounty and provision in Paradise with that which will bring them joy.

Truly God is He Who bestows the best provision.

(22:059. Truly, He will make them enter an entrance with which they shall be well-pleased,) This means Paradise, as Allah says elsewhere:

(Then, if he be of those brought near (to Allah), rest and provision, and a Garden of Delights.) )56:88-89(. Allah tells us that He will grant him rest and provision and a Garden of Delights, as He tells us here:

On them will God bestow verily a goodly Provision:

Then He says:

(22:059. Truly, He will make them enter an entrance with which they shall be well-pleased, and verily, Allah indeed is All-Knowing,) meaning, He is All-Knowing about those who migrate and strive in Jihad for His sake and who deserve that (reward).

114) 22:078-And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive, (with sincerity and under discipline). He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the cult of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation) that the Apostle may be a witness for you, and ye be witnesses for mankind! So establish regular Prayer, give regular Charity, and hold fast to God! He is your Protector – the Best to protect and the Best to help!

It was reported from `Uqbah bin `Amir that the Prophet said:

(Surat Al-Hajj has been blessed with two Sajdahs, so whoever does not prostrate them should not read them.)

And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive,

means, with your wealth and your tongues and your bodies. This is like the Ayah:

(Have Taqwa of Allah as is His due.) )3:102(

He has chosen you,

means, `O Ummah (of Islam), Allah has selected you and chosen you over all other nations, and has favored you and blessed you and honored you with the noblest of Messengers and the noblest of Laws.’

and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion;

He has not given you more than you can bear and He has not obliged you to do anything that will cause you difficulty except that He has created for you a way out. So the Salah, which is the most important pillar of Islam after the two testimonies of faith, is obligatory, four Rak`ahs when one is settled, which are shortened to two Rak`ah when one is traveling. According to some Imams, only one Rak`ahs is obligatory at times of fear, as was recorded in the Hadith. A person may pray while walking or riding, facing the Qiblah or otherwise. When praying optional prayers while traveling, one may face the Qiblah or not. A person is not obliged to stand during the prayer if he is sick; the sick person may pray sitting down, and if he is not able to do that then he may pray lying on his side. And there are other exemptions and dispensations which may apply to the obligatory prayers and other duties. So the Prophet said:

(I have been sent with the easy Hanifi way.) And he said to Mu`adh and Abu Musa, when he sent them as governors to Yemen:

(Give good news and do not repel them. Make things easy for the people and do not make the things difficult for them.) And there are many similar Hadiths. Ibn `Abbas said concerning the Ayah,

and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion;

“This means difficulty.”

it is the cult of your father Abraham.

Ibn Jarir said, “This refers back to the Ayah,

and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion;

meaning, any difficulty.” On the contrary, He has made it easy for you, like the religion of your father Ibrahim. He said, “It may be that it means: adhere to the religion of your father Ibrahim.” I say: This interpretation of the Ayah is like the Ayah:

(Say: “Truly, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, a right religion, the religion of Ibrahim, a Hanif) )6:161﴾

It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation)

Imam `Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak said, narrating from Ibn Jurayj, from `Ata’, from Ibn `Abbas: concerning Allah’s saying,

It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before

“This refers to Allah, may He be glorified.” This was also the view of Mujahid, `Ata’, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Qatadah. Mujahid said, “Allah named you Muslims before, in the previous Books and in Adh-Dhikr,

and in this

means, the Qur’an.” This was also the view of others, because Allah says:

He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion;

Then He urged them to follow the Message which His Messenger brought, by reminding them that this was the religion of their father Ibrahim. Then He mentioned His blessings to this Ummah, whereby He mentioned them and praised them long ago in the Books of the Prophets which were recited to the rabbis and monks. Allah says:

It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before

meaning, before the Qur’an,

and in this

Under the explanation of this Ayah, An-Nasa’i recorded from Al-Harith Al-Ash`ari from the Messenger of Allah , who said:

(Whoever adopts the call of Jahiliyyah, will be one of those who will crawl on their knees in Hell.) A man said, “O Messenger of Allah, even if he fasts and performs Salah” He said,

(Yes, even if he fasts and performs Salah. So adopt the call of Allah whereby He called you Muslims and believers and servants of Allah.)

that the Apostle may be a witness for you, and ye be witnesses for mankind!

means, `thus We have made you a just and fair nation, the best of nations, and all other nations will testify to your justice. On the Day of Resurrection you will be,

witnesses for mankind!

because on that Day all the nations will acknowledge its leadership and its precedence over all others. Therefore, on the Day of Resurrection the testimony of the members of this community will be accepted as proof that the Messengers conveyed the Message of their Lord to them, and the Messenger will testify that he conveyed the Message to them.

So establish regular Prayer, give regular Charity,

means, respond to this great blessing with gratitude by fulfilling your duties towards Allah, doing that which He has enjoined upon you and avoiding that which He had forbidden. Among the most important duties are establishing regular prayer and giving Zakah. Zakah is a form of beneficence towards Allah’s creatures, whereby He has enjoined upon the rich to give a little of their wealth to the poor each year, to help the weak and needy. We have already mentioned its explanation in the Ayah of Zakah in Surat At-Tawbah (9:5).

and hold fast to God!

means, seek the help and support of Allah and put your trust in Him, and get strength from Him.

He is your Protector –

meaning, He is your Protector and your Helper, He is the One Who will cause you to prevail against your enemies.

the Best to protect and the Best to help!

He is the best Mawla and the best Helper against your enemies. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hajj. May Allah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and Companions, and grant them peace; may Allah honor and be pleased with the Companions and those who follow them in truth until the Day of Resurrection.

115) 24:053-They swear their strongest oaths by God that, if only thou wouldst command them, they would leave (their homes). Say: “Swear ye not; Obedience is (more) reasonable; verily, God is well acquainted with all that ye do.”

Say: “Swear ye not;

meaning, do not swear this oath.

Obedience is (more) reasonable;

It was said that the meaning is, your obedience is known, i.e., it is known that your obedience is merely verbal and is not accompanied by action. Every time you swear an oath you lie. This is like the Ayah:

(They swear to you that you may be pleased with them…) )9:96( And Allah says:

(They have made their oaths a screen (for their evil actions).) )58:16( It is part of their nature to tell lies, even in the issues they choose, as Allah says:

(Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their friends among the people of the Scripture who disbelieve: “If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey any one against you; and if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you.” But Allah is Witness that they verily are liars. Surely, if they are expelled, never will they go out with them; and if they are attacked, they will never help them. And if they do help them, they will turn their backs, and they will not be victorious.) )59:11-12( Then Allah says:

(24:054. Say: “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger…) meaning, follow the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger . (but if you turn away,) if you ignore what he has brought to you, (he is only responsible for the duty placed on him), conveying the Message and fulfilling the trust. (and you for that placed on you.) accepting that, and venerating it and doing as it commanded. (If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance.) because he calls to the straight path, (The path of Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. ..) )42:53( (The Messenger’s duty is only to convey in a clear way.) This is like the Ayat: (your duty is only to convey and on Us is the reckoning.) )13:40( (So remind them — you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.) )88:21-22(

116) 24:055-God has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion – the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived), to one of security and peace: ‘They will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me. ‘If any do reject Faith after this, they are rebellious and wicked.

This is a promise from Allah to His Messenger that He would cause his Ummah to become successors on earth, i.e., they would become the leaders and rulers of mankind, through whom He would reform the world and to whom people would submit, so that they would have in exchange a safe security after their fear. This is what Allah did indeed do, may He be glorified and exalted, and to Him be praise and blessings. For He did not cause His Messenger to die until He had given him victory over Makkah, Khaybar, Bahrayn, all of the Arabian Peninsula and Yemen; and he took Jizyah from the Zoroastrians of Hajar and from some of the border lands of Syria; and he exchanged gifts with Heraclius the ruler of Byzantium, the ruler of Egypt and Alexandria, the Muqawqis, the kings of Oman and An-Najashi of Abyssinia, who had become king after Ashamah, may Allah have mercy on him and grant him honor. Then when the Messenger died, his successor (Khalifah) Abu Bakr As-Siddiq took over the reins of power and united the Ummah, preventing its disintegration. He took control of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and he sent the Islamic armies to the land of Persia, under the leadership of Khalid bin Al-Walid, may Allah be pleased with him, who conquered a part of it and killed some of its people. He sent another army under the leadership of Abu `Ubaydah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the other commanders who came after him in the lands of Syria. He sent a third army under the leadership of `Amr bin Al-`As, may Allah be pleased with him, to Egypt. Allah enabled the army sent to Syria to conquer Busra and Damascus and their provinces the land of Hawran and its environs. Then Allah chose for Abu Bakr to honor him with Him and he died. The people of Islam were blessed that As-Siddiq was inspired to appoint `Umar Al-Faruq as his successor, so he took the reins of power after him and did a perfect job. After the Prophets, the world never saw anyone like `Umar in excellence of conduct and perfect justice. During his time, the rest of Syria and Egypt, and most of Persia, was conquered. Kisra was defeated and utterly humiliated, and he retreated to the furthest point of his kingdom. Mighty Caesar was brought low, his rule over Syria was overthrown, and he retreated to Constantinople. Their wealth was spent for the sake of Allah, as the Messenger of Allah had foretold and promised. May Allah’s perfect peace and purest blessing be upon him. During the rule of `Uthman, the Islamic domains spread to the furthest points of the earth, east and west. The lands of the west were conquered as far as Cyprus and Andalusia, Kairouan and Sebta which adjoins the Atlantic Ocean. Towards the east, the conquests extended as far as China. Kisra was killed, his kingdom was utterly destroyed and the cities of Iraq, Khurasan and Al-Ahwaz were conquered. The Muslims killed a great number of Turks and Allah humiliated their great king Khaqan. Taxes were collected from the east and the west, and brought to the Commander of the faithful `Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him. This was a blessing brought by his recitation and study of the Qur’an, and his bringing the Ummah together to preserve and protect it. In the Sahih it was recorded that the Messenger of Allah said:

(Allah showed me the earth and I looked at the east and the west. The dominion of my Ummah will reach everywhere I was shown.) And now we are enjoying that which Allah and His Messenger promised us, for Allah and His Messenger spoke the truth. We ask Allah to give us faith in Him and His Messenger, and to help us to give thanks to Him in a manner that will earn us His pleasure.

God has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion – the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived), to one of security and peace

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas narrated that Abu Al-`Aliyah said, “The Prophet and his Companions were in Makkah for nearly ten years, calling people in secret to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate. They were in a state of fear and were not instructed to fight until after they were commanded to migrate to Al-Madinah. When they came to Al-Madinah, then Allah instructed them to fight. In Al-Madinah they were afraid and they carried their weapons morning and evening. This is how they remained for as long as Allah willed…” Then Allah revealed this Ayah. He caused His Prophet to prevail over the Arabian Peninsula, and then they felt safe and put down their weapons. Then Allah took His Prophet and they remained safe throughout the time of Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman, until what happened happened, and fear again prevailed over them, so they instituted a police force and guards. They changed, so their situation changed. One of the Salaf said, “The Khilafah of Abu Bakr and `Umar was true and adhered to the Book of Allah. Then he recited this Ayah.” Al-Bara’ bin `Azib said, “This Ayah was revealed when we were in a state of extreme fear.” This Ayah is like the Ayah:

(And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land) Until His statement:

(so that you might be grateful) )8:26(.

as He granted it to those before them;

This is like the Ayah where Allah tells us that Musa said to his people:

(“It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you successors on the earth…”) )7:129( And Allah says:

(And We wished to do a favor to those who were weak in the land,) until the two Ayat there after. )28: 5-6(

that He will establish in authority their religion – the one which He has chosen for them;

As the Messenger of Allah said to `Adiyy bin Hatim when he came to him in a delegation:

(Do you know Al-Hirah) He said, “I do not know it, but I have heard of it.” The Messenger of Allah said:

(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, Allah will make this matter (i.e., Islam) prevail until a woman riding a camel will come from Al-Hirah and perform Tawaf around the House without needing the protection of anybody, and the treasures of Kisra the son of Hurmuz will be opened.) He said, “Kisra the son of Hurmuz” He said,

(Yes, Kisra the son of Hurmuz, and wealth will be given until there will be no one who will accept it.) `Adiyy bin Hatim said: “Now it is happening that a woman riding a camel comes from Al-Hirah and performs Tawaf around the House without needing the protection of anybody, and I was among those who opened the treasure of Kisra the son of Hurmuz. By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, the third thing will also come to pass, because the Messenger of Allah said it.”

‘They will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me.

Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas that Mu`adh bin Jabal told him, “While I was riding behind the Prophet on a donkey, with nothing between me and him but the back of his

saddle, he said,

O Mu`adh bin Jabal.) I said, `Here I am at your service, O Messenger of Allah.’ Then a while passed, then he said,

(O Mu`adh bin Jabal.) I said, `Here I am at your service, O Messenger of Allah.’ Then a while passed, then he said,

(O Mu`adh bin Jabal.) I said, `Here I am at your service, O Messenger of Allah.’ He said,

(Do you know the rights that Allah has over His servants) I said, `Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said,

(The rights that Allah has over His servants are that they should worship Him and not associate anything with Him.) Then a while passed, then he said,

(O Mu`adh bin Jabal.) I said, `Here I am at your service, O Messenger of Allah.’ He said,

(Do you know the rights that people have over Allah if they do that) I said, `Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said,

(The rights that people have over Allah is that He will not punish them.)” This was also recorded in the Two Sahihs.

‘If any do reject Faith after this, they are rebellious and wicked.

means, `whoever then stops obeying Me after that, has stopped obeying the command of his Lord, and that is a great sin.’ The Companions — may Allah be pleased with them — were the most committed of people after the Prophet to the commands of Allah and the most obedient to Allah. Their victories were in accordance with their level of commitment. They caused the Word of Allah to prevail in the east and the west, and Allah supported them so much that they governed all the people and all the lands. When the people subsequently fell short in their commitment to some of the commandments, their strength and victory fell short accordingly, but it is confirmed through more than one route in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said:

(There will remain a group of my Ummah adhering to the truth, and those who forsake them or oppose them will not harm them until the Day of Resurrection. ) According to another report:

(.. until the command of Allah comes to pass and they are like that.) According to another report:

(… until they fight the Dajjal.) According to another report:

(… until `Isa bin Maryam comes down and they are prevailing.) All of these reports are Sahih, and there is no contradiction between them.

117) 25:052-Therefore listen not to the Unbelievers, but strive against them with the utmost strenuousness, with the (Qur’an).

Therefore listen not to the Unbelievers, but strive against them with the utmost strenuousness,

meaning, with the Qur’an. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas.

with the utmost strenuousness,

This is like the Ayah,

(O Prophet! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites,) (9:73)

118) 29:006-And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls: for God is free of all needs from all creation.

(29:005. Whoever hopes in meeting with Allah,) means, in the Hereafter, and does righteous deeds, and hopes for a great reward with Allah, then Allah will fulfill his hopes and reward him for his deeds in full. This will undoubtedly come to pass, for He is the One Who hears all supplications, He knows and understands the needs of all created beings. Allah says: (Whoever hopes in meeting with Allah, then Allah’s term is surely coming, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.)

(29:006)And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls:

This is like the Ayah,

(Whosoever does righteous good deed, it is for himself) (41:46). Whoever does a righteous deed, the benefit of that deed will come back to him, for Allah has no need of the deeds of His servants, and even if all of them were to be as pious as the most pious man among them, that would not add to His dominion in the slightest. Allah says:

And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls: for God is free of all needs from all creation.

Then Allah tells us that even though He has no need of His creatures, He is kind and generous to them. He will still give to those who believe and do righteous deeds the best of rewards, which is that He will expiate for them their bad deeds, and will reward them according to the best deeds that they did. He will accept the fewest good deeds and in return for one good deed will give anything between ten rewards and seven hundred, but for every bad deed, He will give only one evil merit, or even that He may overlook and forgive. This is like the Ayah,

(Surely, Allah wrongs not even the weight of a speck of dust, but if there is any good, He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward.) (4:40). And He says here:

(29:007. Those who believe, and do righteous good deeds, surely, We shall expiate from them their evil deeds and We shall indeed reward them according to the best of that which they used to do.)

119) 29:069-And those who strive in Our (cause), – We will certainly guide them to our Paths: For verily God is with those who do right.

Allah reminds Quraysh how He blessed them by granting them access to His sanctuary which He has made (open) to (all) men, the dweller in it and the visitor from the country are equal there, and whoever enters it is safe, because he is in a place of great security, although the Arabs of the desert round about used to ambush and raid one another and kill one another. As Allah says:

(For the protection of the Quraysh. The caravans to set forth safe in winter and in summer. So let them worship the Lord of this House. Who has fed them against hunger, and has made them safe from fear.) (106:1-4)

(29:067. Then do they believe in falsehood, and deny the graces of Allah) means, is the thanks that they give for this immense blessing to associate others with Him and worship others besides Him, idols and rivals

(Have you not seen those who have changed the blessings of Allah into disbelief, and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction) (14:28) They disbelieved in the Prophet, servant and Messenger of Allah , when what they should have done was to worship Allah Alone and not associate anything with Him, and to believe in, honor and respect the Messenger, but they rejected him and fought him, and expelled him from their midst. So, Allah took His blessing away from them, and killed those of them whom He killed at Badr, then His Messenger and the believers gained the upper hand, and Allah enabled His Messenger to conquer Makkah, and He disgraced them and humiliated them (the disbelievers). Then Allah says:

(29:068. And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or denies the truth, when it comes to him) There is no one who will be more severely punished than one who tells lies about Allah and says that Allah revealed something to him at the time when Allah did not reveal anything to him, or says, `I shall reveal something like that which Allah revealed.’ And there is no one who will be more severely punished than one who denies the truth when it comes to him, for the former is a fabricator and the latter is a disbeliever. Allah says:

(Is there not a dwelling in Hell for the disbelievers) Then Allah says:

(29:069)And those who strive in Our (cause), –

meaning the Messenger and his Companions and those who follow him, until the Day of Resurrection,

will certainly guide them to our Paths:

means, `We will help them to follow Our path in this world and the Hereafter.’ Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that `Abbas Al-Hamdani Abu Ahmad — one of the people of `Akka (Palestine) — said, concerning the Ayah:

And those who strive in Our (cause), – We will certainly guide them to our Paths: For verily God is with those who do right.

“Those who act upon what they know, Allah will guide them to that which they do not know.” Ahmad bin Abu Al-Hawari said, “I told this to Abu Sulayman Ad-Darani, and he liked it and said: `No one who is inspired to do something good should do it until he hears a report concerning that; if he hears a report then he should go ahead and do it, and praise Allah because it was in accordance with what he himself felt.”’

For verily God is with those who do right.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ash-Sha`bi said; “Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him, said: `Righteousness means doing good to those who ill-treat you, it does not mean doing good to those who do good to you.”’ And Allah knows best. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-`Ankabut. All praise and thanks are due to Allah.

120) 33:015-And yet they had already covenanted with God not to turn their backs, and a covenant with God must (surely) be answered for.

(33:014. And if the enemy had entered from all sides, and they had been exhorted to Al-Fitnah, they would surely have committed it and would have hesitated thereupon but little.)

(“Truly, our homes lie open.” And they lay not open. They but wished to flee.) If the enemy had entered upon them from every side of Al-Madinah and from every direction, then demanded that they become disbelievers, they would have promptly done so. They would not have adhered to their faith or remained steadfast in it if they were faced with the slightest fear. This is how it was interpreted by Qatadah, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd and Ibn Jarir. This is a condemnation of them in the clearest terms. Then Allah reminds them of the promise they had made to Him before this fear struck them, that they would not turn their backs or flee from the battlefield.

(33:015) and a covenant with God must (surely) be answered for.

means, Allah will inevitably ask them about that covenant. Then Allah tells them that fleeing from battle will not delay their appointed demise or make their lives any longer; on the contrary, it may be the cause of their being taken sooner, and in a sudden manner. Allah says:

(33:016. and then you will enjoy no more than a little while!) meaning, `after you run away and flee from battle.’

(Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is better for him who have Taqwa”) (4:77). Then Allah says:

(Say: “Who is he who can protect you from Allah if He intends to harm you, or intends mercy on you” And they will not find, besides Allah, for themselves any protector or any helper.) meaning, they have no one else except Allah to respond to their cries.

121) 33:018-Verily God knows those among you who keep back (men) and those who say to their brethren, “Come along to us”, but come not to the fight except for just a little while.

“Come along to us”,

meaning, come to where we are in the shade and enjoying fruits. But in spite of that,

(33:019. they come not to the battle except a little, being miserly towards you.) i.e., `they are mean and have no love or mercy towards you.’ As-Suddi said:

(Being miserly towards you.) means, with the booty.

(Then when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes revolving like one over whom hovers death;) means, because of the intensity of their fear and terror; this is how afraid these cowards are of fighting.

(but when the fear departs, they will smite you with sharp tongues,) means, when security is restored, they will speak eloquently and nicely, claiming that they were the bravest and most chivalrous of men, but they are lying. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

(they will smite you) means, “they will start to talk about you.” Qatadah said: “But when it comes to the booty, the most miserly of people and the worst to have to share the booty with are those who say, `Give us, give us, we were there with you,’ but during battle they were the most cowardly and the most likely to fail to support the truth.” They are miserly towards good, meaning that there is no goodness in them, for they have combined cowardice with lies and little good. Allah says:

(Such have not believed. Therefore Allah makes their deeds fruitless and that is ever easy for Allah.)

122) 33:020-They think that the Confederates have not withdrawn; and if the Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, and seeking news about you (from a safe distance) and if they were in your midst, they would fight but little.

They think that the Confederates have not withdrawn;

and that they are still close by and will return.

and if the Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, and seeking news about you (from a safe distance)

means, `if the Confederates should come back, they hope that they will not be present with you in Al-Madinah, but that they will be in the desert, asking about news of you and what happened to you with your enemy.’

and if they were in your midst, they would fight but little.

means, `if they are among you, they will not fight alongside you very much,’ because they are so cowardly and weak, and have so little faith, but Allah knows best about them.

123) 33:025-And God turned back the Unbelievers for (all) their fury: no advantage did they gain; and enough is God for the believers in their fight. And God is full of Strength, able to enforce His Will.

Allah tells us how he drove the Confederates away from Al-Madinah by sending against them a wind and troops of angels. If Allah had not made his Messenger a Mercy to the Worlds, this wind would have been more severe than the barren wind which He sent against `Ad, but Allah says:

(And Allah would not punish them while you are amongst them) (8:33). So, Allah sent them a wind which dispersed them after they had gathered on the basis of their whims. They were a mixture of tribes and parties with a variety of opinions, so it was befitting that a wind should be sent against them that would scatter them and break up their gathering, driving them back disappointed and lost in their hatred and enmity. They did not achieve any worldly good such as the victory and booty that they had hoped for, nor did they achieve any good in the Hereafter, because of their sin of declaring enmity against the Messenger and seeking to kill him and destroy his army. Whoever wants and seriously intends to do a thing is the same as one who actually does it.

and enough is God for the believers in their fight.

means, they did not have to fight them in order to expel them from their land, but Allah Alone sufficed them and helped His servant and granted victory to His troops. Hence the Messenger of Allah used to say,

(None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, Alone, He was true to His promise, and He helped His servant, and He gave might to His soldiers and defeated the Confederates alone and there is nothing after Him.) This was reported from a Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him. In the Two Sahihs it was recorded that `Abdullah bin Abi `Awfa, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah invoked Allah against the Confederates and said:

(O Allah, Who revealed the Book and is swift in bringing to account, defeat the Confederates, O Allah defeat them and shake them.)

and enough is God for the believers in their fight.

This Ayah indicates that there would be a cessation of war between them and Quraysh; after this, the idolators did not attack the Muslims, on the contrary, the Muslims attacked them in their own land. Imam Ahmad recorded that Sulayman bin Surad, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “On the day of Al-Ahzab, the Messenger of Allah said:

(Now we will attack them and they will not attack us.) This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari in his Sahih.

And God is full of Strength, able to enforce His Will.

means, by His power and might He drove them back disappointed and lost, and they did not achieve anything, and Allah granted victory to Islam and its followers, and fulfilled His promise and helped His servant and Messenger; to Him be blessings and praise.

124) 33:026-And those of the People of the Book who aided them – God did take them down from their strongholds and cast terror into their hearts. (So that) some ye slew, and some ye made prisoners.

125) 33:027-And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods, and of a land which ye had not frequented (before). And God has power over all things.

We have already noted that when the Confederates came and camped outside Al-Madinah, Banu Qurayzah broke the covenant that existed between them and the Messenger of Allah . This happened by the agency of Huyay bin Akhtab An-Nadari, may Allah curse him, who entered their stronghold and would not leave their leader, Ka`b bin Asad, alone until he agreed to break the covenant. Among the things that he said to him was, “Woe to you! This is the opportunity for glory. The Quraysh and their company of men from various tribes, and the Ghatafan and their followers, have come to you, and they will stay here until they eliminate Muhammad and his companions.” Ka`b said to him, “No, by Allah, this is the opportunity for humiliation. Woe to you, O Huyay, you are a bad omen. Leave us alone.” But Huyay kept trying to persuade him until he agreed to his request. He laid down the condition that if the Confederates went away without doing anything, he (Huyay) would join them in their stronghold and would share their fate. When Banu Qurayzah broke their covenant and news of this reached the Messenger of Allah, he and the Muslims were very distressed by that. When Allah helped him by suppressing his enemy and driving them back disappointed and lost, having gained nothing, the Messenger of Allah returned to Al-Madinah in triumph and the people put down their weapons. While the Messenger of Allah was washing off the dust of battle in the house of Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, Jibril, upon him be peace, came to him wearing a turban of brocade, riding on a mule on which was a cloth of silk brocade. He said, “Have you put down your weapons, O Messenger of Allah” He said, “Yes.” He said, “But the angels have not put down their weapons. I have just now come back from pursuing the people.” Then he said: “Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, commands you to get up and go to Banu Qurayzah.” According to another report, “What a fighter you are! Have you put down your weapons” He said, “Yes.” He said, “But we have not put down our weapons yet, get up and go to these people.” He said: “Where” He said, “Banu Qurayzah, for Allah has commanded me to shake them.” So the Messenger of Allah got up immediately, and commanded the people to march towards Banu Qurayzah, who were a few miles from Al-Madinah. This was after Salat Az-Zuhr. He said,

(No one among you should pray `Asr except at Banu Qurayzah.) So, the people set out, and the time for the prayer came while they were still on the road. Some of them prayed on the road, saying, “The Messenger of Allah only wanted to make us march quickly.” Others said, “We will not pray it until we reach Banu Qurayzah.” Neither of the two groups were rebuked for what they did. The Messenger of Allah followed them. He left Ibn Umm Maktum, may Allah be pleased with him, in charge of Al-Madinah, and he had given the flag to `Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him. Then the Messenger of Allah went to them (Banu Qurayzah) laying seige to them for twenty-five days. When this had gone on for too long, they agreed to accept the judgement of Sa`d bin Mu`adh, the leader of `Aws because they had been their allies during the Jahiliyyah, so they thought that he would treat them kindly as `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul had done for his allies of Banu Qaynuqa` when he had asked the Messenger of Allah to set them free. So, these people thought that Sa`d would do the same for them as Ibn Ubayy had done for those people. They did not know that Sa`d had been struck by an arrow in his medial arm vein during the campaign of Al-Khandaq. The Messenger of Allah had had his vein cauterized and had brought him to stay in a tent in the Masjid so that he could keep a close eye on him. One of the things that Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said in his supplication was, “O Allah, if there is still anything that has to do with the war against Quraysh, then keep me alive for it, and if You decree that the war between us and them is over, then let the bleeding be renewed, but do not let me die until I get my satisfaction with regard to Banu Qurayzah.” Allah answered his prayer and decreed that they would agree to be referred to him for judgement, and this was their own free choice. When this happened, the Messenger of Allah called him to come from Al-Madinah to pass judgement on them. When he arrived, riding on a donkey that had been specially equipped for him to ride, some of the `Aws began to urge him not to be too harsh, saying, “O Sa`d, they are your clients so be kind to them, trying to soften his heart.” But he kept quiet and did not answer them. When they persisted in their request, he said, “Now it is time for Sa`d to make sure that no rebuke or censure will divert him from the path of Allah.” Then they knew that he would not let them live. When he reached the tent where the Messenger of Allah was, the Messenger of Allah said:

(Stand up for your leader.) So the Muslims stood up for him, and welcomed him with honor and respect as befitted his status and so that his judgement would have more impact. When he sat down, the Messenger of Allah said:

(These people) — and he pointed to them — (have agreed to accept your judgement, so pass judgement on them as you wish.) Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “My judgement will be carried out” The Messenger of Allah said: “Yes.” He said, “And it will be carried out on those who are in this tent” He said, “Yes.” He said, “And on those who are on this side” — and he pointed towards the side where the Messenger of Allah was, but he did not look directly at the Messenger of Allah out of respect for him. The Messenger of Allah said to him: “Yes.” So Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “My judgement is that their fighters should be killed and their children and wealth should be seized.” The Messenger of Allah said:

(You have judged according to the ruling of Allah from above the seven heavens.) According to another report:

(You have judged according to the ruling of the Sovereign.) Then the Messenger of Allah commanded that ditches should be dug, so they were dug in the earth, and they were brought tied by their shoulders, and were beheaded. There were between seven hundred and eight hundred of them. The children who had not yet reached adolescence and the women were taken prisoner, and their wealth was seized. All of this is stated both briefly and in detail, with evidence and Hadiths, in the book of Sirah which we have written, praise and blessings be to Allah. Allah said:

(And those who backed them, Allah brought them down) means, those who helped and supported them in their war against the Messenger of Allah .

(33:026)And those of the People of the Book

means, Banu Qurayzah, who were Jews from one of the tribes of Israel. Their forefathers had settled in the Hijaz long ago, seeking to follow the Unlettered Prophet of whom they read in the Tawrah and Injil.

(then when there came to them that which they had recognized, they disbelieved in it) (2:89). May the curse of Allah be upon them.

and cast terror into their hearts.

means fear, because they had supported the idolators in their war against the Messenger of Allah and the one who knows is not like the one who does not know. They had terrified the Muslims and intended to kill them so as to gain earthly power, but their plans backfired; the idolators ran away and the believers were victorious while the disbelievers were losers; where they had aimed for glory, they were humiliated. They wanted to eradicate the Muslims but they were themselves eradicated. In addition to all this, they are doomed in the Hereafter, so by all acounts they are counted as losers. Allah says:

(So that) some ye slew, and some ye made prisoners.

Those who were killed were their warriors, and the prisoners were their children and women. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Atiyah Al-Qurazi said, “I was shown to the Prophet on the day of Qurayzah, because they were not sure about me. The Prophet told them to look at me to see whether I had grown any body hair yet. They looked and saw that I had not grown any body hair, so they let me go and I was put with the other prisoners.” This was also recorded by the Sunan compilers, and At-Tirmidhi said it is Hasan Sahih.” An-Nasa’i also recorded something similar from `Atiyah.

(33:027)And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods, and of a land

means, `He gave these things to you after you killed them.’

and of a land which ye had not frequented (before).

It was said that this was Khaybar, or that it was the lands of the Persians and Romans. Ibn Jarir said, “It could be that all of these are referred to

And God has power over all things.

126) 33:050-O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom God has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts, and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts, who migrated (from Makka) with thee; and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her; – this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large) We know what We have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their right hands possess; – in order that there should be no difficulty for thee. And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Allah says, addressing His Prophet that He has made lawful for him of women his wives to whom he has given the dowery, which is what is meant by “their due”, which is used here, as was stated by Mujahid and others. The dowery which he gave to his wives was twelve and half `Uqiyah (measures of gold) so they all received five hundred Dirhams except for Umm Habibah bint Abi Sufyan, to whom An-Najashi, may Allah have mercy on him, gave four hundred Dinars (on behalf of the Prophet ) Safiyyah bint Huyay, whom he chose from among the prisoners of Khaybar, then he set her free, making her release her dowery. A similar case was that of Juwayriyah bint Al-Harith Al-Mustalaqiyyah — he paid off the contract to buy her freedom from Thabit bin Qays bin Shammas and married her. May Allah be pleased with them all.

and those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom God has assigned to thee;

means, `the slave-girls whom you took from the war booty are also permitted to you.’ He owned Safiyyah and Juwayriyah, then he manumitted them and married them, and he owned Rayhanah bint Sham`un An-Nadariyyah and Mariyah Al-Qibtiyyah, the mother of his son Ibrahim, upon him be peace; they were both among the prisoners, may Allah be pleased with them.

and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts, and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts,

This is justice which avoids going to either extreme, for the Christians do not marry a woman unless there are seven grandfathers between the man and the woman (i.e., they are very distantly related or not at all), and the Jews allow a man to marry his brother’s daughter or his sister’s daughter. So the pure and perfect Shari`ah came to cancel out the extremes of the Christians, and permitted marriage to the daughter of a paternal uncle or aunt, or the daughter of a maternal uncle or aunt, and forbade the excesses of the Jews who allowed marriage to the daughter of a brother or sister which is an abhorrent thing.

and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her; – this only for thee,

means, `also lawful for you, O Prophet, is a believing woman if she offers herself to you, to marry her without a dowery, if you wish to do so.’ This Ayah includes two conditions. Imam Ahmad recorded from Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`idi that a woman came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Messenger of Allah, verily, I offer myself to you (for marriage).” She stood there for a long time, then a man stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah, marry her to me if you do not want to marry her.” The Messenger of Allah said:

(Do you have anything that you could give to her as a dowery) He said, “I have only this garment of mine.” The Messenger of Allah said:

(Look for something, even if it is only an iron ring.) So he looked, but he could not find anything. Then the Messenger of Allah said to him:

(Do you have (know) anything of the Qur’an) He said, “Yes, Surah such and such and Surah and such,” he named the Surahs. So, the Messenger of Allah said:

(I marry her to you with what you know of the Qur’an.) It was also recorded by (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) from the Hadith of Malik. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded a narration from his father that `A’ishah said: “The woman who offered herself to the Prophet was Khawlah bint Hakim.” Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah said, “I used to feel jealous of those women who offered themselves to the Prophet and I said, `Would a woman offer herself’ When Allah revealed the Ayah:

(You can postpone whom you will of them, and you may receive whom you will. And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside, it is no sin on you) I said, `I see that your Lord hastens to confirm your desires.”’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said: “The Messenger of Allah did not have any wife who offered herself to him. ” This was recorded by Ibn Jarir. In other words, he did not accept any of those who offered themselves to him, even though they were lawful for him — a ruling which applied to him alone. The matter was left to his own choice, as Allah says:

if the Prophet wishes to wed her;

meaning, if he chooses to do so.

this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large)

`Ikrimah said: “This means, it is not permissible for anyone else to marry a woman who offers herself to him; if a woman offers herself to a man, it is not permissible for him (to marry her) unless he gives her something.” This was also the view of Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi and others. In other words, if a woman offers herself to a man, when he consummates the marriage, he has to give her a dowery like that given to any other woman of her status, as the Messenger of Allah ruled in the case of Barwa` bint Washiq when she offered herself in marriage; the Messenger of Allah ruled that she should be given a dowery that was appropriate for a woman like her after her husband died. Death and consummation are the same with regard to the confirmation of the dowery, and the giving of a dowery appropriate to the woman’s status in the case of those who offer themselves to men other than the Prophet is an established ruling. With regard to the Prophet himself, he is not obliged to give a dowery to a woman who offers herself to him, even if he consummated the marriage, because he has the right to marry without a dowery, Wali (representative) or witnesses, as we have seen in the story of Zaynab bint Jahsh, may Allah be pleased with her. Qatadah said, concerning the Ayah:

this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large)

no woman has the right to offer herself to any man without a Wali or a dowery, except to the Prophet .

We know what We have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their right hands possess;

Ubayy bin Ka`b, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ibn Jarir said, concerning the Ayah:

We know what We have appointed for them as to their wives

means, `concerning the limiting of their number to four free women, and whatever they wish of slave-girls, and the conditions of a representative, dowery and witnesses to the marriage. This is with regard to the Ummah (the people), but We have granted an exemption in your case and have not imposed any of these obligations upon you.’

in order that there should be no difficulty for thee. And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

127) 47:004-Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been God’s Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself) but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the Way of God, – He will never let their deeds be lost.

Guiding the believers to what they should employ in their fights against the idolators, Allah says,

Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks;

which means, `when you fight against them, cut them down totally with your swords.’

At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them,

meaning, `you have killed and utterly destroyed them.’

bind a bond firmly (on them):

`This is referring to the prisoners of war whom you have captured. Later on, after the war ends and the conflict has ceased, you have a choice in regard to the captives: You may either act graciously toward them by setting them free without charge, or free them for a ransom that you require from them.’ It appears that this Ayah was revealed after the battle of Badr. At that time, Allah reproached the believers for sparing many of the enemy’s soldiers, and holding too many captives in order to take ransom from them. So He said then:

(It is not for a Prophet to have captives of war until he had made a great slaughter (among the enemies) in the land. You desire the commodities of this world, but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. Allah is Mighty and Wise. Were it not for a prior decree from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took.) (8:67-68) Allah’s saying,

Until the war lays down its burdens.

Mujahid said: “Until `Isa bin Maryam (peace be upon him) descends.” It seems as if he derived this opinion from the Prophet’s saying,

(There will always be a group of my Ummah victorious upon the truth, until the last of them fight against Ad-Dajjal.) Imam Ahmad recorded from Jubayr bin Nufayr who reported from Salamah bin Nufayl that he went to the Messenger of Allah and said, “I have let my horse go, and thrown down my weapon, for the war has ended. There is no more fighting.” Then the Prophet said to him,

(Now the time of fighting has come. There will always be a group of my Ummah dominant over others. Allah will turn the hearts of some people away (from the truth), so they (that group) will fight against them, and Allah will bestow on them (war spoils) from them (the enemies) — until Allah’s command comes to pass while they are in that state. Verily, the center of the believers’ abode is Ash-Sham. And goodness is tied around the horses’ foreheads till the Day of Resurrection.) An-Nasa’i also recorded this narration. Allah then says,

Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been God’s Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself)

which means that had He so willed, He could have taken immediate vengeance against the disbelievers with a chastisement or exemplary punishment directly from Him.

but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others.

meaning, He has ordered Jihad and fighting against the enemies in order to try you and test your affairs. Allah also expresses His wisdom by the legislation of Jihad in the following two Surahs, Al `Iman and At-Tawbah, in which He says,

(Or did you think that you would enter the Paradise before Allah had made evident those of you who fight in His cause and made evident those who are steadfast) (3:142)

(Fight them; Allah will then punish them by your hands, disgrace them, grant you victory over them, satisfy the breasts of a believing people, and remove the fury of their (the believers’) hearts. Allah turns in forgiveness to whom He wills; Allah is Knowing and Wise.) ( 9:14-15)

Since it is customary during wars that many of the believers die, Allah says:

But those who are slain in the Way of God, – He will never let their deeds be lost.

which means that He would not let their good deeds go to waste, but would rather multiply and increase them. Some of them will continue being rewarded for their good deeds for the entire length of their stay in Al-Barzakh. This has been mentioned in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad on the authority of Kathir bin Murrah, who reported from Qays Al-Judhami, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said,

(As the first drop of his blood gushes forth, a martyr is granted six merits: all of his sins are forgiven, he is shown his place in Paradise, he is married to wide-eyed Huris, he is secured from the great fear (on Judgement Day) and the torment of the grave, and he is adorned with the adornments of Iman.) Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith. Abu Ad-Darda’, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that Allah’s Messenger said

(A martyr is allowed to intercede for seventy members of his household. ) This was recorded by Abu Dawud, and there are numerous other Hadiths mentioning the merits of the martyrs. As for Allah’s saying,

(47:005. He will guide them) meaning, He will guide them to Jannah. This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous good deeds, their Lord will guide them because of their Faith: beneath them rivers will flow in the Gardens of Pleasure.) (10:9) Allah says,

(and amend their condition.) meaning, their situation and affairs.

128) 47:020-Those who believe say, “Why is not a sura sent down (for us)?” But when a sura of basic or categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at the approach of death. But more fitting for them –

Allah mentions that the believers were hoping that Jihad would be legislated. But when Allah ordained it, many of the people turned back, as Allah says,

(Have you not seen those who were told: “Restrain your hands (from fighting), establish the Salah, and give Zakah.” But then when fighting was ordained for them, you find a party of them fearing the people as they fear Allah or more. They said: “Our Lord! Why have You decreed fighting upon us If only You have postponed us for a short period.” Say: “The enjoyment of this world is little. The Hereafter is far better for him who had Taqwa of (Allah), and you will not be dealt with unjustly, even as much as a thin thread (inside a date’s pit).”)(4:77) Similarly, Allah says here,

Those who believe say, “Why is not a sura sent down (for us)?”

means, a Surah containing an order to fight. Then He says,

But when a sura of basic or categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at the approach of death.

meaning, due to their fear, terror, and cowardice concerning meeting the enemies. Allah then encourages them by saying,

But more fitting for them –

47:021.-obedience and good words.) which means that it would have been better for them to listen and obey in that present situation.

129) 48:015-Those who lagged behind (will say), when ye (are free to) march and take booty (in war): “Permit us to follow you.” They wish to change God’s decree: Say: “Not thus will ye follow us: God has already declared (this) beforehand”: then they will say, “But ye are jealous of us.” Nay, but little do they understand (such things).

Allah characterizes the bedouins who lagged behind the Messenger of Allah during the `Umrah of Hudaybiyyah, saying that when the Prophet and his Companions later went on to conquer Khaybar, the bedouins asked them to take them along. They were hoping to collect war booty, having been absent when it was time to fight the enemy and enduring with patience therein. Allah the Exalted ordered His Messenger to refuse to give them permission to accompany him, being a punishment that is similar to their error. Allah has promised those who were present at Al-Hudaybiyyah to earn Khaybar’s war spoils alone, not shared in that with the bedouins who lagged behind. Therefore, the legislation that Allah gave in this regard was joined to the destiny that He decided, occurring just as He decided. Allah’s statement,

They wish to change God’s decree:

which refers to the promise that Allah gave those who were present at Al-Hudaybiyyah, according to the explanation reported from Mujahid, Qatadah, Juwaybir and which Ibn Jarir preferred. Allah said,

Say: “Not thus will ye follow us: God has already declared (this) beforehand”:

`when He promised the participants of Al-Hudaybiyyah before you asked to join them,’

then they will say, “But ye are jealous of us.”

`you do not want us to share the war spoils with you,’

Nay, but little do they understand (such things).

the truth is nothing close to what they claimed, but they understand not.

130) 48:016-Say to the desert Arabs who lagged behind: “Ye shall be summoned (to fight) against a people given to vehement war: then shall ye fight, or they shall submit. Then if ye show obedience, God will grant you a goodly reward, but if ye turn back as ye did before, He will punish you with a grievous Penalty.”

131) 48:017-No blame is there on the blind, nor is there blame on the lame, nor on one ill (if he joins not the war): But he that obeys God and his Apostle, – (God) will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow; and he who turns back, (God) will punish him with a grievous Penalty.

Scholars of Tafsir differ over who the people mentioned here are. They are people experienced at warfare who will be called to fight. There are many opinions, first, they are the tribe of Hawazin, as Shu`bah narrated from Abu Bishr from Sa`id bin Jubayr, or `Ikrimah, or both of them. Hushaym narrated this explanation from Abu Bishr, from both Sa`id bin Jubayr and `Ikrimah. Qatadah, as narrated from him in one version, held the same view. The second view is that these people are the tribe of Thaqif, according to Ad-Dahhak. The third view is that they are Banu Hanifah, according to Juwaybir and Az-Zuhri, as Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated from him. Similar was narrated from Sa`id bin Jubayr and `Ikrimah. The fourth opinion is that they are the Persians, according to `Ali bin Abi Talhah who reported that from `Abdullah bin `Abbas. This is also the view of `Ata’, Mujahid, and `Ikrimah. Ka`b Al-Ahbar said that they are the Romans, while Ibn Abi Layla, `Ata, Al-Hasan and Qatadah — in a different narration from him, said that they are the Persians and Romans. Mujahid also said that they are the idolators. In another narration Mujahid said, “They are men given to great warfare,” and did not specify any particular people. This last explanation is the view preferred by Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Jarir. Allah’s statement,

(48:016) then shall ye fight, or they shall submit.

means, `you are called to fight them in Jihad, through constant warfare, until you become victorious over them or they surrender. Or, they will embrace your religion without a fight, but with their full consent.’ Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said next,

Then if ye show obedience,

`if you accept the call to Jihad and prepare for it and fulfill your duty in this regard,’

God will grant you a goodly reward, but if ye turn back as ye did before,

`on the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, when you were called to Jihad, yet lagged behind,’

He will punish you with a grievous Penalty.”

Allah then mentions the legal reasons that allow one to be excused from joining the Jihad, such as blindness and being lame, and various illnesses that strike one and are remedied in few days. When one is ill, he is allowed to remain behind and will have a valid excuse to do so, until his illness ends. Allah the Exalted and Most honored then said, while ordaining joining the Jihad and obeying Allah and His Messenger ,

But he that obeys God and his Apostle, – (God) will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow; and he who turns back,

from joining the Jihad and busies himself in his livelihood,

(God) will punish him with a grievous Penalty.

in this life with humiliation and in the Hereafter with the Fire. Allah the Exalted has the best knowledge.

132) 48:022-If the Unbelievers should fight you, they would certainly turn their backs; then would they find neither protector nor helper.

133) 48:024-And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave you the victory over them. And God sees well all that ye do.

(48:022)If the Unbelievers should fight you, they would certainly turn their backs; then would they find neither protector nor helper.

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored delivers the glad tidings to His believing servants that had the idolators fought them, Allah would have given victory to His Messenger and His faithful servants. Then, the army of the disbelievers would have been defeated and would have deserted the battlefield and fled. They would not have found any helper or supporter, because they were fighting Allah, His Messenger and His Faithful Party. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

(48:023. That has been the way of Allah already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the way of Allah.) means this is the way Allah deals with His creation. Whenever faith and disbelief meet at any distinguishing juncture, Allah gives victory to faith over disbelief, raises high truth and destroys falsehood. For instance, Allah the Exalted helped His loyal faithful supporters during the battle of Badr and they defeated His idolator enemies, even though the Muslims were few in num- ber and lightly armed, while the idolators were large in number and heavily armed. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

(48:024)And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave you the victory over them. And God sees well all that ye do.

Allah the Exalted reminds His faithful servants of His favor when He restrained the hands of the idolators, and thereby, no harm touched the Muslims from the idolators. Allah restrained the hands of the believers and they did not fight the idolaters near Al-Masjid Al-Haram. Rather, Allah saved both parties from battle and brought forth a peace treaty that produced good results for the believers, in addition to, earning them the good end in this life and the Hereafter. We stated a Hadith from Salamah bin Al-Akwa` in which he narrated that when the Muslims brought forth those seventy idolator prisoners, they tied and paraded them before the Messenger of Allah , who looked at them and said,

(Release them, so that they earn the burden of starting hostilities and its infamy.) Thereafter, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored sent down this Ayah about that incident,

And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them

Imam Ahmad recor- ded that Anas bin Malik said, “On the day of Hudaybiyyah, eighty armed men from Makkah went down the valley coming from Mount At-Tan`im to ambush the Messen- ger of Allah . The Messenger invoked Allah against them, and they were taken prisoners.” `Affan added, “The Messenger pardoned them, and this Ayah was later on revealed,

And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave you the victory over them.

Muslim, Abu Dawud in his Sunan and At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i, in the Tafsir section of their Sunan, collected this Hadith.

134) 49:015-Only those are Believers who have believed in God and His Apostle, and have never since doubted, but have striven with their belongings and their persons in the Cause of God: Such are the sincere ones.

Allah chastises the bedouins who, when they embraced Islam, claimed for themselves the grade of faithful believers. However, Faith had not yet firmly entered their hearts,

(49:014. The bedouins say: “We believe.” Say: “You do not believe, but say, `We have submitted,’ for Faith has not yet entered your hearts…”) This honorable Ayah provides proof that Faith is a higher grade than Islam, according to the scholars of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah. This is also demostrated in the Hadith of Jibril, peace be upon him, when he questioned the Prophet about Islam, then Iman then Ihsan. Thus moving the general matter to one more specific, then even more specific. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amir bin Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas said, “The Messenger of Allah gave (something to) some men and did not give one of them. Sa`d said, `O Allah’s Messenger, you gave to so-and-so and so-and-so. However, you gave nothing to so-and-so, even though he is a believer.’ The Prophet said,

(Or say, a Muslim.) Sa`d repeated his statement thrice each time the Prophet answered,

(Or say, a Muslim.) The Prophet then said,

(I might give some men and give nothing to others, even though the latter are dearer to me than the former. I do not give them things for fear that they might be thrown on their faces in the Fire.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Therefore, the Prophet made a distinction between the grade of believer and the grade of Muslim, indicating that Iman is a more exclusive grade than Islam. I mentioned this subject in detail supported by evidence, in the beginning of the explanation of the chapter on Iman in Sahih Al-Bukhari, all praise is due to Allah and all the favors are from Him. So this proves that the bedouins whom the Ayah mentioned were not hypocrites, rather they were Muslims in whose hearts Faith was not yet firmly established. They claimed a higher grade for themselves than the grade that they earned, and they were taught a lesson as a consequence. This meaning agrees with the meaning given by Ibn `Abbas, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Qatadah and that preferred by Ibn Jarir. These bedouins were taught a lesson,

(Say: “You do not believe, but say `We are Muslims,’ for Faith has not yet entered your hearts…”) meaning, `you have not yet achieved the reality of Faith.’ Allah the Exalted said,

(But if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not decrease anything in reward for your deeds…) `He will not decrease any of your rewards,’ as Allah said;

(We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) (52:21) Allah said:

(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) for those who repent and return to Him. Allah’s statement,

(49:015)Only those are Believers

who have perfect Faith,

who have believed in God and His Apostle, and have never since doubted,

They do not have doubts and their Faith was not shaken. Rather, their Faith remained on conviction,

but have striven with their belongings and their persons

meaning, they gladly gave away their life and the most precious of their wealth in obedience to Allah as a means of seeking His pleasure,

Such are the sincere ones.

`in their statement if they say that they are believers, unlike some bedouins who are faithful only by words outwardly!’

135) 59:002-It is He Who got out the Unbelievers among the People of the Book from their homes at the first gathering (of the forces). Little did ye think that they would get out: And they thought that their fortresses would defend them from God! But the (Wrath of) God came to them from quarters from which they little expected (it), and cast terror into their hearts, so that they destroyed their dwellings by their own hands and the hands of the Believers, take warning, then, O ye with eyes (to see)!

136) 59:005-Whether ye cut down (O ye Muslim!) The tender palm-trees, or ye left them standing on their roots, it was by leave of God, and in order that He might cover with shame the rebellious transgresses.

Allah states that everything that exists in the heavens and on the earth praises, glorifies, reveres and prays to Him and affirms His Oneness. Allah said in another Ayah,

(The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise. But you understand not their glorification.)(17:44) Allah’s statement,

(59:001. And He is the Almighty) meaning of invincible majesty,

(the All-Wise.) in what He decrees and legislates.

Allah said,

(59:002)It is He Who got out the Unbelievers among the People of the Book

referring to the Jewish tribe of Bani An-Nadir, according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Az-Zuhri and several others. When the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, he made a peace treaty with the Jews stipulating that he would not fight them and they would not fight him. They soon betrayed the treaty that they made with Allah’s Messenger . Therefore, Allah sent His torment down on them; it can never be averted, and His appointed destiny touched them; it can never be resisted. The Prophet forced them to evacuate and abandon their fortified forts that Muslims did not think they would ever control. The Jews thought that their fortifications will save them from Allah’s torment, but they did not help them against Allah in the least. Then, that which they did not expect came to them from Allah, and Allah’s Messenger forced them to leave Al-Madinah. Some of them went to Adhri`at in the area of Ash-Sham, which is the area of the grand Gathering and Resurrection, while others went to Khaybar. The Prophet allowed them to evacuate their forts and take whatever their camels could carry. They destroyed the property that they could not carry. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

they destroyed their dwellings by their own hands and the hands of the Believers, take warning, then, O ye with eyes (to see)!

meaning, “Contemplate the end of those who defied Allah’s command, contradicted His Messenger and denied His Book. See how Allah’s humiliating torment struck them in this life, as well as, the painful torment that Allah has reserved for them in the Hereafter.” Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Ka`b bin Malik said that one of the Prophet’s Companions said, “The Quraysh idolators wrote to `Abdullah bin Ubayy and those who were still worshipping idols among the tribes of Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj. The Messenger of Allah was in Al-Madinah at the time, before the battle of Badr occurred. They wrote: `You have given refuge to our citizen. We swear by Allah, you should fight him, or we will expel you or gather all our forces, until we kill your soldiers and take your women captive.’ When the news of this threat reached `Abdullah bin Ubayy and the idolators of Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj, they prepared to fight the Prophet. The news of this reached the Prophet and he went to them saying,

(The threat of the Quraysh has caused you extreme anxiety! The Quraysh cannot cause you more harm than what you will cause yourselves by your actions. Do you want to fight your children and brethren) When they heard these words from the Prophet, they dis- persed and the news of what happened reached the Quraysh idolators. After the battle of Badr, the Quraysh idolators wrote to the Jews of Al-Madinah, `You have armor and forts! You should fight our citizen or we will do such and such to you, and nothing will prevent us from acquiring your women. The news of this letter also reached the Prophet and Bani An-Nadir intended to betray their treaty. Bani An-Nadir sent a message to the Prophet asking him to come with thirty of his Companions to meet thirty of their rabbis half way, from either side. They said that the rabbis would listen to the Prophet and if they believe in him, the rest of Bani An-Nadir would believe. They intended to kill the Messenger, and Allah informed His Messenger of this plot before they could harm him. The next day, the Prophet gathered his forces and laid siege to their area, saying to them,

(By Allah! You will not be safe until and unless you renew your peace treaty with me.) They refused to do so, and the Prophet fought them the rest of that day. The next morning, the Prophet laid siege to the tribe of Bani Qurayzah and left Bani An-Nadir alone that day. The Prophet ordered Bani Qurayzah to sign a new treaty of peace, and they accepted. The Prophet left Bani Qurayzah and went back to Bani An-Nadir with his forces and fought them until they agreed to surrender in return for safe passage out of Al-Madinah. Bani An-Nadir evacuated Al-Madinah and took with them all whatever their camels could carry from their furniture, including even the wood and the doors to their houses. The date trees of Bani An-Nadir were granted to the Messenger by Allah when He said,

And what Allah gave as booty to His Messenger from them — for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry) that is, what you earned without a fight. The Prophet divided most of their trees between the emigrants and gave to only two men who were poor from Al-Ansar. He did not give the Ansar any of it, except for these two men. The Prophet kept a part of the war booty for himself and that part of charity of the Prophet was transferred to the administration of his daughter’s children, i.e., children of Fatimah.” However, let us summarize the battle of Bani An-Nadir here. From Allah alone we seek help.

After the seventy Companions whom the Prophet sent to teach the Qur’an were killed at the area of Bi’r Ma`unah, excluding `Amr bin Umayyah Ad-Damri, who killed two men from the tribe of Bani `Amir on his way back to Al-Madinah. He did not know that these two men had a promise of safe passage from Allah’s Messenger . When he went back to Al-Madinah, he told the Prophet what happened and the Prophet said,

(You have killed two men, I shall pay the blood money for them.) Bani An-Nadir and Bani `Amir were allies and had treaties. The Prophet asked Bani An-Nadir to help pay the blood money for the two dead men. The area of Bani An-Nadir was in a suburb of Al-Madinah, a few miles to the east. In his book of Sirah, Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said; “Then the Messenger of Allah went to Bani An-Nadir to ask them for financial help to pay the blood money of the two men from Bani `Amir, who were killed by `Amr bin Umayyah Ad-Damri. They had a promise of safe passage from the Prophet according to the (subnarrator) Yazid bin Ruman. Bani An-Nadir and Bani `Amir had a treaty and were allies. When Allah’s Messenger went to Bani An-Nadir asking them for help to pay the blood money for the two men, they said, `Yes, O Abu Al-Qasim! We will help you, since you asked us for help.’ Yet, when they met each other in secret, they said, `You will not find a better chance with this man than this,’ while the Messenger of Allah was sitting next to a wall of one of their houses. They said, `Who will ascend this wall and drop a stone on this man and rid us of his trouble’ `Amr bin Jihash bin Ka`b volunteered and ascended the wall of the house to drop a stone on the Messenger . The Messenger of Allah was sitting with several of his Companions, such as Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Ali. The news of this plot was conveyed to the Prophet from heaven, and he stood up and went back to Al-Madinah. When the Companions thought that the Messenger was absent for a long time, they went to see where he was and saw a man coming from Al-Madinah. They asked him, and he said that he saw the Prophet enter Al-Madinah. The Messenger’s Companions went to him, and he told them the news of the betraying plot that the Jews planned against him. He ordered them to prepare for war and to march forth to Bani An-Nadir. The Prophet gathered his forces and marched to the area of Bani An-Nadir, who had taken refuge in their fortified forts. The Messenger ordered their date trees be cut down and burned. The Jews heralded at the Prophet, `O Muhammad! You used to forbid mischief in the earth and blame those who did it. Why is it that you had the date trees cut down and burned’ Meanwhile, `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, Wadi`ah, Malik bin Abi Qawqal, Suwayd, Da`is and several other men who all belonged to the tribe of Al-Khazraj bin Bani `Awf, sent a message to Bani An-Nadir saying, `Be firm and strong. We will never abandon you. If you are fought against, we will fight along with you and if you are forced to leave Al-Madinah, we will accompany you.’ The Jews waited for this claim of support, but the hypocrites did not deliver. Allah cast terror in the hearts of the Jews. They asked the Messenger to allow them safe passage out of Al-Madinah and to spare their lives. In return, they would only take what their camels could carry, except for weapons. The Prophet agreed. The Jews collected all the wealth their camels could transport. One of the Jews would demolish his own house around its door, so that he could carry the door on the back of his camel. Bani An-Nadir moved to Khaybar, and some of them went to Ash-Sham. They left all that remained behind for the Messenger of Allah , who had control over how it was to be divided. The Prophet divided it between the emigrants and none of Al-Ansar got a share, except for Sahl bin Hunayf and Abu Dujanah Simak bin Kharashah. They said that they were poor and the Messenger of Allah gave them their share. Only two men from Bani An-Nadir embraced Islam, Yamin bin Umayr bin Ka`b bin `Amr bin Jihash and Abu Sa`d bin Wahb and they saved their wealth due to their acceptance of Islam.” Ibn Ishaq continued, “Some of the offspring of Yamin narrated to me that the Messenger of Allah said to Yamin,

(Have you not heard what your cousin plotted to do against me) Yamin bin `Umayr promised someone a reward if he killed his cousin `Amr bin Jihash, and someone killed him, according to their claim” Ibn Ishaq then said, “All of Surat Al-Hashr was revealed about Bani An-Nadir. ” A similar story was recorded by Yunus bin Bukayr from Ibn Ishaq. Allah’s statement,

It is He Who got out the Unbelievers among the People of the Book

refers to Bani An-Nadir,

from their homes at the first gathering (of the forces).

Allah said,

Little did ye think that they would get out:

i.e., within the few days you laid siege against them. The Companions had surrounded their forts for only six days, and their forts were fortified and formidable. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

And they thought that their fortresses would defend them from God! But the (Wrath of) God came to them from quarters from which they little expected (it),

meaning, there came to them from Allah what they did not expect or anticipate. Allah said in another Ayah,

(Those before them indeed plotted, but Allah struck at the foundation of their building, and then the roof fell down upon them, from above them, and the torment overtook them from directions they did not perceive.)(16:26) Allah said

and cast terror into their hearts,

means, Allah cast fear, terror and fright in their hearts, and why would that not happen to them He who was given victory, by Allah frightening his enemies the distance of a month, laid siege to them. May Allah’s peace and blessings be on the Prophet. As in Ibn Ishaq’s explanation — which preceded;

so that they destroyed their dwellings by their own hands and the hands of the Believers,

the Jews brought down what they wanted to transport from their roofs and doors, so that they could carry them on camels. Similar was said by `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and several others. Allah’s statement,

(59:003. And had it not been that Allah had decreed exile for them, He would certainly have punished them in this world;) meaning, if it was not for the fact that Allah had already decreed that they would evacuate Al-Madinah, leaving behind their homes and wealth, He would have sent another type of punishment upon them, such as being killed and captured. This was said by Az-Zuhri. `Urwah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said that Allah decreed that the Jews would be punished in the life of this world and face the torment of the fire of Hell He prepared for them in the Hereafter. Allah said,

(and in the Hereafter theirs shall be the torment of the Fire.) meaning, it is a matter ordained that they will surely face,

(59:004. That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger.) means, Allah prepared this specific punishment and sent His Messenger and his Companions against them, because they defied Allah and His Messenger and denied the good news that Allah sent forth in the Books of previous Messengers regarding the coming of Muhammad . The Jews knew these facts about Muhammad just as they knew their own children. Allah said,

(And whosoever opposes Allah, then verily, Allah is Severe in punishment.)

Allah said,

(59:005)Whether ye cut down (O ye Muslim!) The tender palm-trees, or ye left them standing on their roots, it was by leave of God, and in order that He might cover with shame the rebellious transgresses.

Linah is an especially good type of date tree. Abu `Ubaydah said that Linah is a different kind of dates than `Ajwah and Barni. Several others said that Linah refers to every type of date fruits, except for the `Ajwah (ripen dates), while Ibn Jarir said that it refers to all kinds of date trees. Ibn Jarir quoted Mujahid saying that it also includes the Buwayrah type. When the Messenger of Allah laid siege to Bani An-Nadir, to humiliate them and bring fear and terror to their hearts, he ordered their date trees to be cut down. Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Yazid bin Ruman, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “Bani An-Nadir sent a message to the Messenger , saying that he used to outlaw mischief in the earth, so why did he order that their trees be cut down Allah sent down this honorable Ayah stating that whatever Linah was felled or left intact by the Muslims, has been done by His permission, will, leave and pleasure to humiliate and disgrace the enemy and degrade them.” Mujahid said, “Some of the emigrants discouraged others from chopping down the date trees of Jews, saying that they were war spoils for Muslims. The Qur’an approved of the actions of those who discouraged and those who approved of cutting these trees, stating that those who cut them or did not, did so only by Allah’s leave.” There is also a Hadith narrated from the Prophet with this meaning. An-Nasa’i recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

Whether ye cut down (O ye Muslim!) The tender palm-trees, or ye left them standing on their roots, it was by leave of God, and in order that He might cover with shame the rebellious transgresses.

“They forced them to come down from their forts and were ordered to cut their trees cut down. So the Muslims hesitated, and some of them said, `We cut down some and left some. We must ask Allah’s Messenger if we will earn a reward for what we cut and if we will be burdened for what we left intact.’ Allah sent down this Ayah,

Whether ye cut down (O ye Muslim!) The tender palm-trees, or ye left them standing on their roots, it was by leave of God,

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah ordered that the date trees of Bani An-Nadir be cut down and burned. The Two Sahihs collected a similar narration. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said,”Bani An-Nadir and Bani Qurayzah fought (against the Prophet ), and the Prophet exiled Bani An-Nadir and allowed Bani Qurayzah to remain in their area until later, when the Prophet fought against Qurayzah. Their men were executed and their women, children and wealth were confiscated and divided among Muslims. Some of them, however, were saved because they returned to the Prophet’s side, who granted them asylum, and they embraced Islam. All of the Jews of Al-Madinah, Bani Qaynuqa`, the tribe of `Abdullah bin Salam, Bani Harithah and the rest of the Jewish tribes in Al-Madinah were exiled.” The Two Sahihs also recorded from Ibn `Umar that the Messenger of Allah burned down the date trees of Bani An-Nadir and had them cut down the date palms of Al-Buwayrah. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed this Ayah,

Whether ye cut down (O ye Muslim!) The tender palm-trees, or ye left them standing on their roots, it was by leave of God, and in order that He might cover with shame the rebellious transgresses.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that the battle of Bani An-Nadir occurred after the battles of Uhud and Bi’r Ma`unah.

137) 59:006-What God has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them – for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: but God gives power to His apostles over any He pleases: and God has power over all things.

138) 59:007-What God has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from the people of the townships, – belongs to God, – to His Apostle and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear God; for God is strict in Punishment

Allah the Exalted explains the regulations for Fai’, the booty that the Muslims acquire from the disbelievers, without fighting them or using cavalry and camelry in war against them. For instance, the booty collected from Bani An-Nadir was not acquired because of fighting them using horses and camels. The Muslims did not fight Bani An-Nadir in battle, but Allah forced them out of their forts on account of the fear that He placed in their hearts for Allah’s Messenger . Therefore, it was Fai’ that Allah awarded His Messenger, with his discretion to spend it however he sees fit. Indeed, the Prophet spent the Fai’ on righteous causes and for the benefit of Muslims in the areas that Allah mentioned in this Ayat,

(59:006)What God has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them –

meaning, from Bani An-Nadir,

for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry:

refering to using camels,

but God gives power to His apostles over any He pleases: and God has power over all things.

mean, Allah is powerful and cannot be resisted or opposed; He is the Compeller over all things. Allah the Exalted said,

(59:007)What God has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from the people of the townships,

meaning, from all the villages and areas that are conquered in this manner; the booty collected from them falls under the same ruling as the booty acquired from Bani An-Nadir. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

belongs to God, – to His Apostle and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer;

until its end and the following Ayah. mentioning the ways the Fai’ should be spent. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar said, “The wealth of Bani An-Nadir was of the Fai’ type that Allah awarded His Messenger and for which the Muslims did not have to use cavalry or camelry. Therefore, it was for the Messenger of Allah , and he used it for the needs of his family for a year at a time, and the rest was used to buy armors and weapons used in the cause of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored.” Ahmad collected the short form of this story. The Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah, collected this Hadith. Abu Dawud recorded that Malik bin `Aws said,”While I was at home, the sun rose high and it got hot. Suddenly the messenger of `Umar bin Al-Khattab came to me and I went along with him and entered the place where `Umar was sitting on a bedstead made of date-palm leaves and without a mattress. He said when I went in, `O Malik! Some of your people’s families came to me due to their famine, and I have ordered that relief aid should be given to them, so take it and distribute it among them.’ I said, `I wish that you ordered someone else to do it.’ He said, `Take it.’ Then Yarfa (the servant of `Umar) came saying, `O Commander of the faithful! May I admit `Uthman bin `Affan, `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf, Az-Zubayr bin Al-`Awwam and Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas’ `Umar said, `Yes,’ and they came in. After a while Yarfa came again and said, `O Commander of the faithful! May I admit Al-`Abbas and `Ali’ `Umar said, `Yes.’ So, they were admitted and Al-`Abbas said, `O Chief of the believers! Judge between me and this one (i.e., `Ali).’ The group (being `Uthman and his companions) said, `O Chief of the believers! Judge between them and relieve both of them from each other.’ I (Malik bin Aws) thought that they asked the four men to come in before them for this purpose. `Umar said, `Be patient!’ He then asked the group (`Uthman and his companions), `I ask you by Allah by Whose permission the heaven and the earth exist, do you know that Allah’s Messenger said,

(Our (the Prophet’s) property will not be inherited. Whatever we leave, is charity)’ The group said, `He said so.’ `Umar then turned to `Ali and Al-`Abbas and said, `I beseech you by Allah by Whose permission the heaven and the earth exist, do you know both that Allah’s Messenger said,

(Our (the Prophets`) property will not be inherited. Whatever we leave, is charity)’ They replied, `He said so.’ `Umar then said, `Allah bestowed on His Messenger a special favor unlike what he gave all other people. Allah the Exalted said,

What God has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them – for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: but God gives power to His apostles over any He pleases: and God has power over all things.

Therefore, this property, the booty collected from Bani An-Nadir, was especially given to Allah’s Messenger . However, by Allah, neither did he take possession of it and leave you, nor did he favor himself with it to your exclusion. Allah’s Messenger took the yearly expenses from it for himself and his family and left the rest in the Muslim Treasury.’ He then asked the group, `I ask you by Allah with Whose permission the heavens and earth exist, do you know this’ They replied, `Yes.’ `Umar then said to `Ali and Al-`Abbas, `I ask you by Allah, with Whose permission that heavens and earth exist, do you know this’ They said, `Yes.’ `Umar added, `When Allah took His Prophet unto Him, Abu Bakr said: I am the successor of Allah’s Messenger ! Then you both came to Abu Bakr asking for your (Al-`Abbas’) share of inheritance from your nephew, and he (`Ali) asked for his wife’s share from her father’s inheritance. Abu Bakr said: Allah’s Messenger said,

(Our (the Prophets’) property will not be inherited. Whatever we leave, is charity.)” Allah knows that Abu Bakr was true, pious, rightly guided and a follower of what was right. So, Abu Bakr assumed the responsibility of that property. When Abu Bakr died, I said: I am the successor of Allah’s Messenger and the successor of Abu Bakr. So I managed it as long as Allah allowed me to manage it. Then you both (`Ali and Al-`Abbas) came to talk to me, bearing the same claim and presenting the same case, asking for that property. I said to you: I am ready to hand over this property to you if you wish. I will do so on the condition that you will take a pledge before Allah’s that you will manage it in the same way as Allah’s Messenger used to. So, both of you agreed and on that condition I handed it over to you. Now you come to me to render a different judgement over the property than the one I made before. By Allah, I will never give any decision other than what I have already given, until the Last Hour begins. If you are unable to manage it, then return it to me, and I will do the job on your behalf.,” They recorded this from the Hadith of Az-Zuhri. Allah said,

In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you.

means, `We made the expenditures for the Fai’ like this, so that the wealth does not remain among the wealthy, who would spend it as they wish and desire and give none of it to the poor.’

Allah the Exalted said,

So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you.

meaning, `whatever the Messenger commands you, then do it and whatever he forbids you, then avoid it. Surely, He only commands righteousness and forbids evil.’ Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “Allah curses women who practice tattooing and those who get themselves tattooed, and the women who remove the hair from their eyebrows and faces and those who make artificial spaces between their teeth in order to look more beautiful, whereby changing Allah’s creation.” His statement reached a woman from Bani Asad called, Umm Ya`qub, who came to `Abdullah and said, “I have come to know that you have cursed such and such” He replied, “Why should I not curse those whom Allah’s Messenger has cursed and who are cursed in Allah’s Book!” Umm Ya`qub said, “I have read the whole Qur’an, but did not find in it what you say.” He said, “Verily, if you have read the Qur’an, you have found it. Didn’t you read,

So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you.

She replied, “Yes, I did.” He said, “Verily, Allah’s Messenger forbade such things. ” “She said, “But I think that your wife does these things” He said, “Go and look at her.” She went and watched her, but could not see anything in support of her claim. She went back to `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and said that she did not notice anything on his wife. On that he said, “If my wife was as you thought, I would not keep her with me.” The Two Sahihs recorded this from the Hadith of Sufyan Ath-Thawri. As well as a Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(When I order you to do something, then do as much as you can of it. If I forbid something for you, then shun it.) Allah’s statement,

And fear God; for God is strict in Punishment

means, fear Allah by obeying His orders and refraining from His prohibitions. Surely, Allah is severe in punishment for those who defy Him and reject and disobey His commands as well as, those who commit what He forbids and prohibits.

139) 59:008-(Some part is due) to the indigent Muhajirs, those who were expelled from their homes and their property, while seeking Grace from God and (His) Good Pleasure, and aiding God and His Apostle: such are indeed the sincere ones:-

Allah states the categories of needy people who also deserve a part of the Fai’,

who were expelled from their homes and their property, while seeking Grace from God and (His) Good Pleasure,

meaning, departed their homes and defied their people, seeking the acceptance of Allah and His favor,

and aiding God and His Apostle: such are indeed the sincere ones:-

meaning, `they are those who were truthful in statement and deed, and they are the chiefs of the Muhajirin.’ Allah the Exalted praised the Ansar next and emphasized their virtue, status and honor, preferring to give to others over themselves, even though they were in need, and not feeling enviousness.

140) 59:014-They will not fight you (even) together, except in fortified townships, or from behind walls. Strong is their fighting (spirit) amongst themselves: thou wouldst think they were united, but their hearts are divided: that is because they are a people devoid of wisdom.

Allah states that the hypocrites, `Abdullah bin Ubayy and his like, sent a messenger to Bani An-Nadir promising them help. Allah the Exalted said,

(59:011. Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their friends among the People of the Scripture who disbelieve: “If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey anyone against you; and if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you.”) Allah then said,

(But Allah is Witness that they verily are liars.) meaning, the hypocrites lied when they issued this promise, because it was just words that they did not intend to fulfill. Also, what they said they would do, would never have been fulfilled by them, and this is why Allah said,

(59:012. and if they are attacked, they will never help them.) meaning, the hypocrites will not fight along with the Jews,

(And (even) if they do help them,) and even if the hypocrites did fight along their side,

(they will turn their backs, and they will not be victorious.) This Ayah contains good news, just as the good news that this following Ayah conveys,

(59:013. Verily, you are more fearful in their breasts than Allah.) meaning, the hypocrites fear you more than they fear Allah, as He says;

(Behold! a section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more.)(4:77) This is why Allah said,

(That is because they are a people who comprehend not.) Allah then said,

(59:014)They will not fight you (even) together, except in fortified townships, or from behind walls.

meaning, they will not fight Muslims except from behind besieged fortified forts, because of their cowardice and fear of Muslims. They only fight when they have to defend themselves (even though they threaten Muslims of reprisals). Allah the Exalted said,

Strong is their fighting (spirit) amongst themselves:

meaning, the enmity they feel against each other is intense,

(And make you to taste the violence of one another.)(6:65) Allah said in the Ayah,

thou wouldst think they were united, but their hearts are divided:

meaning, even though one might see them combining forces and think that these forces are harmonious, yet in reality, they are divided severely. Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said that this Ayah refers to the hypocrites and the People of the Scriptures,

that is because they are a people devoid of wisdom.

(59:015. They are like their immediate predecessors; they tasted the evil result of their conduct, and for them a painful torment.) referring to the Jewish tribe of Bani Qaynuqa`, according to Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and Muhammad bin Ishaq.

Allah said,

(59:016. Like Shaytan, when he says to man: “Disbelieve.” But when (man) disbelieves, Shaytan says: “I am free of you…”) meaning, the example of the Jews being deceived by the promises of the hypocrites, who said that they will help them if Muslims fight them, is that of the devil. When matters got serious and the Jews were besieged, the hypocrites betrayed them and abandoned them to taste utter defeat. Likewise, the devil lures mankind into disbelief and when they obey him, he disowns them and declares himself free of their actions, saying,

(I fear Allah, the Lord of all that exists!) Allah said,

(59:017. So, the end of both will be that they will be in the Fire, abiding therein.) meaning, the end of both he, Shaytan, who commanded that dis- belief be committed, and those who accep- ted his call, was in the fire of Hell forever,

(Such is the recompense of the wrongdoers. ) means, this is the recompense of every unjust person.

141) 60:009-God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong.

Allah said to His faithful servants, after ordering them to be enemies with the disbelievers,

(60:007. Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those, whom you hold as enemies.) meaning affection after animosity, tenderness after coldness and coming together after parting from each other,

(And Allah has power (over all things),) Allah is able to gather opposites and bring together hearts, after feeling hostility and hardness. In this case, the hearts will come together in agreement, just as Allah said when He mentioned His favor on the Ansar,

(And remember Allah’s favor on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His grace, you became brethren and were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it.) (3:103) Also the Prophet said to them,

(Did I not find you misguided, and Allah guided you through me; and divided, and Allah united )your hearts (through me) Allah the Exalted said,

(He it is Who has supported you with His help and with the believers. And He has united their hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allah has united them. Certainly He is Almighty, All-Wise.) (8:62,63) And in the Hadith:

(Love your loved one moderately, because one day, he might become your enemy. Hate your hated one moderately, because one day, he might become your loved one.) Allah’s statement,

(And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) means, Allah forgives the disbelief of the disbelievers if they repent from it, returned to their Lord and surrendered to Him in Islam. Surely, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most-Merciful to those who repent to Him from their sins, no matter what type of the sin it is.

(60:008. Allah does not forbid you with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes,) means, those who did not have a role in your expulsion. Therefore, Allah does not forbid you from being kind to the disbelievers who do not fight you because of the religion, such as women and weak disbelievers,

(to deal kindly) to be gentle with them,

(and justly with those) to be fair with them

(Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Asma’ bint Abu Bakr said, “My mother, who was an idolatress at the time, came to me during the Treaty of Peace, the Prophet conducted with the Quraysh. I came to the Prophet and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! My mother came visiting, desiring something from me, should I treat her with good relations’ The Prophet said,

(Yes. Keep good relation with your mother.)” The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Zubayr said, “Qutaylah came visiting her daughter, Asma’ bint Abi Bakr, with some gifts, such as Dibab, cheese and clarified (cooking) butter, and she was an idolatress at that time. Asma’ refused to accept her mother’s gifts and did not let her enter her house. `A’ishah asked the Prophet about his verdict and Allah sent down the Ayah,

(Allah does not forbid you with those who fought not against you on account of religion) until the end of the Ayah. Allah’s Messenger ordered Asma’ to accept her mother’s gifts and to let her enter her house.” Allah’s statement,

(Allah loves those who deal with equity.) was duly explained in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hujurat. We also mentioned the authentic Hadith,

(The just, who are fair in their decisions, families and those under their authority, will be on podiums made of light, to the right of the Throne.)

Allah’s statement,

(60:009)God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection).

means, `Allah forbids you from being kind and befriending with the disbelievers who are openly hostile to you, those who fought against you, expelled you and helped to expel you. Allah the Exalted forbids you from being their friends and orders you to be their enemy.’ Then Allah stresses His threat against being friends with them, by saying,

(And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the wrongdoers.) As He said;

(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as protecting friends, they are but protecting friends of each other. And if any among you takes them (as protecting friends), then surely, he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the wrongdoers) (5:51)

142) 61:004-Truly God loves those who fight in His Cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure.

We mentioned in many a places before the meaning of Allah’s statement,

(Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) Therefore, we do not need to repeat its meaning here. Allah’s statement,

(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) This refutes those who neglect to fulfill their promises. This honorable Ayah supports the view that several scholars of the Salaf held, that it is necessary to fulfill the promise, regardless of whether the promise includes some type of wealth for the person receiving the promise or otherwise. They also argue from the Sunnah, with the Hadith recorded in the Two Sahihs in which Allah’s Messenger said,

(There are three signs for a hypocrite: when he promises, he breaks his promise; when speaks, he lies; and when he is entrusted, he betrays.) And in another Hadith in the Sahih,

(There are four characteristics which if one has all of them, he is the pure hypocrite, and if anyone has any of them, he has a characteristic of hypocrisy, until he abandons it.) So he mentioned breaking the promise among these four characteristics. We mentioned the meaning of these two Hadiths in the beginning of the explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari, and to Allah is the praise and the thanks. Therefore Allah implied this meaning, when He continued His admonishment by saying,

(Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do.) Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amir bin Rabi`ah said, “Allah’s Messenger came to us while I was a young boy, and I went out to play. My mother said, `O `Abdullah! Come, I want to give you something.’ Allah’s Messenger said to her,

(What did you want to give him) She said, `Dates.’ He said,

(If you had not given them to him, it would have been written as a lie in your record.)” Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “The faithful believers said, `If we only knew the dearest good actions to Allah, we would perform them.’ Thus, Allah told them about the dearest actions to Him,saying,

Truly God loves those who fight in His Cause in battle array,

Allah stated what He likes, and they were tested on the day of Uhud. However, they retreated and fled, leaving the Prophet behind. It was about their case that Allah revealed this Ayah:

(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) Allah says here, `The dearest of you to Me, is he who fights in My cause.”’ Some said that it was revealed about the gravity of fighting in battle, when one says that he fought and endured the battle, even though he did not do so. Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that this Ayah was sent down to admonish some people who used to say that they killed, fought, stabbed, and did such and such during battle, even though they did not do any of it. Sa`id bin Jubayr said about Allah’s statement,

Truly God loves those who fight in His Cause in battle array,

“Before Allah’s Messenger began the battle against the enemy, he liked to line up his forces in rows; in this Surah, Allah teaches the believers to do the same.” He also said that Allah’s statement,

as if they were a solid cemented structure.

means, its parts are firmly connected to each other; in rows for battle. Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “Firmly connected to each other.” Ibn `Abbas commented on the meaning of the Ayah,

as if they were a solid cemented structure.

by saying, “They are like a firm structure that does not move, because its parts are cemented to each other.”

143) 61:011-That ye believe in God and His Apostle, and that ye strive (your utmost) in the Cause of God, with your property and your persons: That will be best for you, if ye but knew!

144) 61:013-And another (favour will He bestow,) which ye do love, – help from God and a speedy victory. So give the Glad Tidings to the Believers.

We mentioned a Hadith from `Abdullah bin Salam in that the Companions wanted to ask the Prophet of Allah about the best actions with Allah the Exalted and Most Honored, so they could practice them. Allah the Exalted sent down this Surah, including this Ayah,

(61:010. O you who believe! Shall I guide you to a trade that will save you from a painful torment) Allah then explained this great trade that will never fail, the trade that will earn one what he wishes and saves him from what he dislikes. Allah the Exalted said,

(61:011)That ye believe in God and His Apostle, and that ye strive (your utmost) in the Cause of God, with your property and your persons: That will be best for you, if ye but knew!

this is better than the trade of this life and striving hard for it and amassing it. Allah the Exalted said,

(61:012. He will forgive you your sins,) meaning, `if you fulfill what I commanded you and guided you to, then I will forgive your sins and admit you into the Gardens of Paradise. In them, you will have exalted residences and high postitions.’ This is why Allah the Exalted said,

(and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow, and pleasant dwellings in `Adn (Eternal) Paradise; that is indeed the great success.) Allah said,

(61:013)And another (favour will He bestow,) which ye do love,

meaning, `I will grant you more favors that you like,’

– help from God and a speedy victory.

meaning, if you fight in Allah’s cause and support His religion, He will grant you victory. Allah the Exalted said,

(O you who believe! If you help (in the cause of) Allah, He will help you, and make your foothold firm.) (47:7), and,

(Verily, Allah will help those who help His (cause). Truly, Allah is All Strong, All-Wise.) (22:40) Allah’s statement,

a speedy victory.

means, it will come sooner, and this is the increased favor that is earned in this life and continues, becoming the delight of the Hereafter. It is for those who obey Allah and His Messenger and support Allah and His religion. Allah said;

So give the Glad Tidings to the Believers.

145) 63:004-When thou lookest at them, their exteriors please thee; and when they speak, thou listenest to their words. They are as (worthless as hollow) pieces of timber propped up, (unable to stand on their own). They think that every cry is against them. They are the enemies; so beware of them. The curse of God be on them! How are they deluded (away from the Truth)!

Allah the Exalted states that the hypocrites pretended to be Muslims when they went to the Prophet . In reality, they were not Muslims, but rather the opposite. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

(63:001. When the hypocrites come to you, they say: “We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.”) meaning, `when the hypocrites come to you, they announce this statement and pretend to believe in it.’ Allah informs that there is no substance to their statement, and this is why He said,

(Allah knows that you are indeed His Messenger,) then said,

(And Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars indeed.) meaning, their claims, even though it is true about the Prophet. But they did not believe inwardly in what they declared outwardly, and this is why Allah declared their falsehood about their creed. Allah’s statement,

(63:002. They have made their oaths a screen. Thus they hinder (others) from the path of Allah.) meaning, the hypocrites shield themselves from Muslims when they falsely and sinfully swear to be what they are not in reality. Some Muslims were deceived because they did not know their falsehood, and thus, thought that they were Muslims. Some Muslims believed what hypocrites say and even imitated them in their outward behavior. However, inwardly, hypocrites seek the destruction of Islam and its people, and this is why trusting them might bring great harm to many people. This is why Allah said next,

(Thus they hinder (others) from the path of Allah. Verily, evil is what they used to do.) Allah said,

(63:003. That is because they believed, and then disbelieved; therefore their hearts are sealed, so they understand not.) meaning, He has decreed them to be hypocrites because they reverted from faith to disbelief and exchanged guidance for misguidance. Therefore, Allah stamped and sealed their hearts and because of it, they cannot comprehend the guidance, nor any goodness can reach their hearts. Truly, their hearts neither understand, nor attain guidance. Allah said,

(63:004)When thou lookest at them, their exteriors please thee; and when they speak, thou listenest to their words.

meaning, hypocrites have a graceful outer appearance and are eloquent. When one hears them speak, he will listen to their eloquent words, even though hypocrites are truly weak and feeble, full of fear, fright and cowardice. Allah’s statement,

They think that every cry is against them.

means, every time an incident occurs or something frightening happens, they think that it is headed their way. This is indicative of their cowardice, just as Allah said about them,

(Being miserly towards you then when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes revolving like (those of) one over whom hovers death; but when the fear departs, they will smite you with sharp tongues, miserly towards good. Such have not believed. Therefore Allah makes their deeds fruitless and that is ever easy for Allah.) (33:19) They are shapes that do not have much substance, and this is why Allah said,

They are the enemies; so beware of them. The curse of God be on them! How are they deluded (away from the Truth)!

means, how they are being led astray to the misguidance, away from the guidance. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

(Hypocrites have certain signs that they are known by. Their greeting is really a curse, their food is from stealing and the war booty they collect is from theft. They shun the Masjid and they do not come to the prayer but at its end. They are arrogant; it is neither easy for them to blend in, nor it is easy for people to blend with them. They are like pieces of wood by night and are noisy by day.)

146) 64:014-O ye who believe! Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to yourselves: so beware of them! But if ye forgive and overlook, and cover up (their faults), verily God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Allah states that some wives and children are enemies to their husbands and fathers, in that they might be busied with them rather than with performing the good deeds. Allah said in another Ayah,

(O you who believe! Let not your properties or you children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. And whosoever does that then they are the losers.) (63:9) Allah the Exalted said here,

(therefore, beware of them!) for your religion, according to Ibn Zayd. Mujahid explained the Ayah ,

Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to yourselves:

by saying, “They might direct the man to sever his relation or disobey his Lord. The man, who loves his wives and children, might obey them in this case.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said to a man who asked him about this Ayah,

O ye who believe! Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to yourselves: so beware of them!

“There were men who embraced Islam in Makkah and wanted to migrate to Allah’s Messenger . However, their wives and children refused to allow them. Later when they joined Allah’s Messenger , they found that those who were with him (the Companions) have gained knowledge in the religion, so they were about to punish their wives and children. Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah,

But if ye forgive and overlook, and cover up (their faults), verily God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said that it is Hasan Sahih.

147) 66:009-O Prophet! Strive hard against the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell, – an evil refuge (indeed).

Allah the Exalted orders His Messenger to perform Jihad against the disbelievers and hypocrites, the former with weapons and armaments and the later by establishing Allah’s legislated penal code,

and be firm against them.

meaning, in this life,

Their abode is Hell, – an evil refuge (indeed).

that is, in the Hereafter.

148) 73:020-Thy Lord doth know that thou standest forth (to prayer) nigh two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so doth a party of those with thee. But God doth appoint night and day in due measure He knoweth that ye are unable to keep count thereof. So He hath turned to you (in mercy): read ye, therefore, of the Qur’an as much as may be easy for you. He knoweth that there may be (some) among you in ill-health; others travelling through the land, seeking of God’s bounty; yet others fighting in God’s Cause, read ye, therefore, as much of the Qur’an as may be easy (for you) and establish regular Prayer and give regular Charity; and loan to God a Beautiful Loan. And whatever good ye send forth for your souls ye shall find it in God’s Presence, – yea, better and greater, in Reward and seek ye the Grace of God: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Allah says,

(Verily, this) meaning, this Surah.

(an admonition,) meaning, men of understanding receive admonition from it. Thus, Allah says,

(therefore whosoever wills, let him take a path to His Lord.) meaning, from those whom Allah wills that they be guided. This is similar to the stipulation that Allah mentions in another Surah,

(But you cannot will, unless Allah wills. Verily Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Al-Wise.) (76:30)

Then Allah says,

Thy Lord doth know that thou standest forth (to prayer) nigh two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so doth a party of those with thee.

meaning, sometimes like this and sometimes like that, and all of these are done unintentionally. However, you all are not able to be consistent with the night prayer Allah has commanded you, because it is difficult for you. Thus, Allah says,

But God doth appoint night and day in due measure

meaning, sometimes the night and day are equal, and sometimes one of them will be longer or shorter than the other.

He knoweth that ye are unable to keep count thereof.

meaning, the obligation which He prescribed for you.

read ye, therefore, of the Qur’an as much as may be easy for you.

meaning, without specification of any set time. This means, stand and pray during the night as much as is easy (for you). Allah uses the term recitation (Qira’ah) to mean prayer (Salah). This is as Allah says in Surah Subhan (Al-Isra’),

(And offer your Salah neither aloud) (17:110) meaning, your recitation.

(Nor in low voice.) (17:110) Then Allah says,

He knoweth that there may be (some) among you in ill-health; others travelling through the land, seeking of God’s bounty;

meaning, He knows that there will be people of this nation who will have excuses for not praying the (voluntary) night prayer. They are those who are ill and therefore they are not able to perform it, and those who are traveling in the land seeking the bounty of Allah in business and trade, and others who will be busy with that which is more important to them. An example of this is going on expeditions to fight in the way of Allah. This Ayah, rather, this entire Surah was revealed in Makkah even though fighting was not legislated until after it was revealed. Thus, it is among the greatest of the signs of prophethood, because it informs about unseen matters of the future. Thus, Allah says,

read ye, therefore, as much of the Qur’an as may be easy (for you)

meaning, stand and pray at night whatever is easy for you to do of it. Allah said;

and establish regular Prayer and give regular Charity;

meaning, establish your obligatory prayers and pay your obligatory Zakah. This is a proof for those who say that Zakah was made obligatory in Makkah, but the various amounts of Nisab and how much was to be given was clarified in Al-Madinah. And Allah knows best. Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others from the Salaf have said, “Verily, this Ayah abrogated the standing for prayer at night that Allah previously made obligatory for the Muslims.” It has been confirmed in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said to a man,

(Five obligatory prayers during a day and a night (are obligatory).)” The man said, “Is there anything other than this (of prayer) that is obligatory upon me” The Messenger of Allah replied,

(No, except what you may do voluntarily.)

Allah says,

and loan to God a Beautiful Loan.

meaning, from charitable donations. For verily, Allah will reward for this the best and most abundant of rewards. This is as Allah says,

(Who is he that will lend to Allah a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times) (2:245) Then Allah says,

And whatever good ye send forth for your souls ye shall find it in God’s Presence, – yea, better and greater, in Reward

meaning, for all that you send before yourselves, you will get it (back) and it will be better than what you kept for yourselves in the worldly life. Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la Al-Mawsili reported from Al-Harith bin Suwayd, from `Abdullah that Messenger of Allah said,

(Which of you hold his wealth to be more beloved to him than the wealth of his heir) They said, “O Messenger of Allah! There is not a single one of us who does not hold his wealth to be more beloved to him than the wealth of his heir.” The Messenger of Allah then said,

(Know what you are saying!) They replied, “What do we know other than this, O Messenger of Allah” He then said,

(The wealth of one of you is only that which he sends forth, and the wealth of his heir is that which he leaves behind.) Al-Bukhari also recorded this Hadith. Then Allah says,

and seek ye the Grace of God: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

meaning, remember Him and seek forgiveness from Him often for all of your matters. For verily, He is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful to whoever seeks His forgiveness. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Muzzammil, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.

149) 76:008-And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive,-

Allah informs of what he has waiting for those who disbelieve in Him from His creatures of chains, iron collars and Sa`ir. Sa`ir is the flame and fire of the Hell. This is as Allah says,

(76:004. When iron collars will be rounded over their necks, and the chains, they shall be dragged along, in the boiling water, then they will be burned in the Fire.) (40:71,72) After mentioning the blazing Fire He has prepared for these wretched people, Allah goes on to say,

(76:005. Verily, the Abrar (righteous believers) shall drink of a cup mixed with Kafur.) The properties of the Kafur (camphor) are well known; cooling, having a nice fragrance and in addition to this its taste will be delicious in Paradise. Al-Hasan said, “The coolness of the camphor will be in the pleasantness of ginger.” Thus Allah said,

(76:006. A spring wherefrom the servants of Allah will drink, causing it to gush forth abundantly.) meaning, this (drink) that will be mixed for these righteous people will be taken from Kafur, which is a spring that Allah’s close servants will drink directly from, without it being mixed with anything, and they will drink to their fill from it. The word Yashrabu (to drink) includes the meaning of Yarwa (to quench one’s thirst). Allah then says,

(causing it to gush forth abundantly (Tafjir).) meaning, they will have control of it however and wherever they wish. They will have access to it from their castles, their homes, their sitting rooms and their residences. At-Tafjir means to cause to gush forth or flow out. This is as Allah says,

(And they say: “We shall not believe in you until you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us.) (17:90) And Allah says,

(We caused a river to gush forth in the midst of them.) (18:33) Mujahid said,

(causing it to gush forth abundantly.) “This means that they will divert it to wherever they wish.” `Ikrimah and Qatadah both made similar statements. Ath-Thawri said, “They will cause it to flow wherever they wish.”

Allah says,

(76:007. They fulfill vows, and they fear a Day whose evil will be wide-spreading.) meaning, they devote to worship Allah using that which He made obligatory upon them from actions of obligatory obedience that is based on Islamic legislation. They also worship Him by fulfilling their vows. Imam Malik reported from Talhah bin `Abdul-Malik Al-Ayli, who reported from Al-Qasim bin Malik, from `A’ishah that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever makes a vow to obey Allah, then he should obey Him. And whoever makes a vow to disobey Allah, then he should not disobey Him.) Al-Bukhari also recorded this Hadith from Malik. These people also abandon those forbidden things which He (Allah) has prohibited for them, due to their fear of having an evil reckoning on the Day of Return. This is the Day when the evil will spread out among all people except for those upon whom Allah has had mercy. Ibn `Abbas said, “Spreading.” Qatadah said, “By Allah! The evil of that Day will spread until it fills the heavens and the earth.” Concerning Allah’s statement,

(76:008)And they feed, for the love of God,

It has been said that this means the love of Allah, the Most High. In their view the pronoun refers to Allah. However, the most apparent meaning is that the pronoun refers to the food. This would mean, they give food while they themselves love it and desire it. This was stated by Mujahid and Muqatil, and it was the preferred opinion of Ibn Jarir. This is similar to Allah’s statement,

(And gives his wealth, in spite of love for it.) (2:177) Allah also says,

(By no means shall you attain Al-Birr unless you spend of that which you love.) (3:92) In the Sahih, there is a Hadith which states,

(The best charity is that which you give while you are healthy, covetous, hoping for wealth and fearing poverty.) This means in the condition of your love for wealth, your eagerness for it and your need for it. Thus, Allah says,

And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive, –

Concerning the poor person and the orphan, an explanation of them and their characteristics has already preceded. In reference to the captive, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan and Ad-Dahhak all said, “He is the captive among the people of the Qiblah (i.e., the Muslims).” Ibn `Abbas said, “At that time (when this Ayah was revealed) their (the Muslims’) captives were idolators.” Proof for this is that on the day of Badr the Messenger of Allah commanded his Companions to treat the captives respectfully. They (the Companions) would give them preference over themselves when eating their meals. `Ikrimah said, “They (captives) are the slaves.” Ibn Jarir preferred this opinion since the Ayah generally refers to both the Muslim and the idolators. Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata’, Al-Hasan and Qatadah all made similar statements. The Messenger of Allah advised treating servants well in more than one Hadith. This held such importance with him that the last statement of advice that he gave (before dying) was his saying,

(The prayer (As-Salah) and what your right hand possesses (slaves).) Mujahid said, “He (the captive) is the prisoner.” This means that these (righteous) people give food to others even though they themselves desire it and love it, saying at the same time,

(76:009. We feed you seeking Allah’s Face only.) meaning, hoping for the reward of Allah and His pleasure.

(We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you.) meaning, `we do not seek any reward from you in return for it. We also are not seeking for you to thank us in front of the people.’ Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr both said, “By Allah! They do not say this with their tongues, but rather, Allah knows it in their hearts and He commends them for it. Every seeker should seek after this.”

(76:010. Verily, We fear from our Lord a Day that is `Abus and Qamtarir.) meaning, `we only do this so that perhaps Allah may have mercy on us and treat us with gentleness on the Day that is `Abus and Qamtarir.’ `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas, “`Abus means difficult and Qamtarir means long.” `Ikrimah and others said from Ibn Abbas,

(a Day that is `Abus and Qamtarir (hard and distressful, that will make the faces look horrible from extreme dislike to it.)) “The disbeliever will frown on that day until sweat will flow between his eyes like tar.” Mujahid said, “Abus `Abis means (frowning with) the two lips and Qamtarir means drawing up the face in a scowl.” Sa`id bin Jubayr and Qatadah said, “Faces will be made to frown due to dismay. Qamtarir is the contraction of the forehead and what is between the two eyes due to dismay.” Ibn Zayd said, ” `Abus is the evil and Qamtarir is the severity.”

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