Center for the Study of Political Islam International

The 149 Sword Verses of the Koran: Executive Summary

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149 Sword Verses of the Qur’an Put in Context Using Tafsir Ibn Kathir

By David Bukay

Contents

(1) 2:178—pg.1: O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.

· A situation between the Jewish tribes of Nadir and Quraizah during the time of Jahiliyyah, in which blood money (Diyah) to recompense for the death of a brother may or may not be accepted by the victim’s relative. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude. Those who kill in retaliation for the death of a brother after accepting the Diyah will suffer a painful and severe torment from God.

(2) 2:179—pg.3: In the Law of Equality there is (saving of) Life to you, o ye men of understanding; that ye may restrain yourselves.

· The legislation of the law of equality for the means of preserving life so that men of understanding and sound mind may refrain from transgression.

(3) 2:190—pg.3: Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors.

· This is the first ayah about fighting revealed in Medina, in which combat is seen as a defensive measure. This ayah applies only to fighting in the cause of God those who fight you.

(4) 2:191—pg.5: And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.

· The energy of those who follow God should be spent fighting the disbelievers just as they have fought against them, and the disbelievers should be expelled from areas just as the followers of God were expelled. God’s people should fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, for it has been made a sanctuary until the day of Resurrection.

(5) 2:193—pg.6: And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression.

· Fight until there is no more disbelief and worshipping of others along with God, and there prevail justice and faith in God. If they stop their Shirk and fighting the believers, then warfare shall cease against them.

(6) 2:194—pg.8: The prohibited month for the prohibited month, – and so for all things prohibited, – there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But fear God, and know that God is with those who restrain themselves.

· God’s messenger was prevented from entering the Ka’ba in Mecca on the sixth year of Hijrah, along with those who accompanied him; the idolaters allowed him to enter the next year. God permitted his messenger to avenge the idolators’ treatment of him, when He said: The prohibited month for the prohibited month, – and so for all things prohibited, – there is the law of equality. Justice is ordained if any one transgresses the prohibition against the followers of God.

(7) 2:216—pg.9: Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But God knoweth, and ye know not.

· Jihad is prescribed for the Muslims to fight those who transgress against Islam. There is also a warning to those who fight, that they might not love a thing which is bad for them, implying a possible desire to covet something, such as refraining from joining the Jihad.

(8) 2:217—pg.10: They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave (offence) but graver is it in the sight of God to prevent access to the path of God, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members.” Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein.

· This ayah deals with a situation that occurred between Muhammad’s companions and disbelievers in the Hijaz area (Western Arabia) during the Sacred month. After having fought in the Prohibited Month, the companions are warned not to fight disbelievers who have no regard for their faith; they will not cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can.

(9) 2:218—pg.13: Those who believed and those who suffered exile and fought (and strove and struggled) in the path of God, – they have the hope of the Mercy of God: And God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

· God has greatly elevated the hopes of those who believed and those who suffered exile and fought, for gaining what they had wished for.

(10) 2:244—pg.13: Then fight in the cause of God, and know that God Heareth and knoweth all things.

· This ayah indicates that just as caution does not alter destiny, abandoning the fight in the cause of God will neither bring the appointed term closer nor delay it.

(11) 3:121—pg.14: Remember that morning Thou didst leave Thy household (early) to post the faithful at their stations for battle: And God heareth and knoweth all things:

(12) 3:122—pg.14: Remember two of your parties Meditated cowardice; but God was their protector, and in God should the faithful (Ever) put their trust.

(13) 3:123—pg.14: God had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear God; thus May ye show your gratitude.

· According to the majority of scholars, these ayat are describing the Battle of Uhud. The Battle of Uhud occurred on a Saturday, in the month of Shawwal on the third year of Hijrah, between Muhammad, with his companions, and the Quraysh. These ayat reflect back on the Battle of Badr, when Muhammad and his companions were a contemptible little force.

(14) 3:124—pg.16: Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: “Is it not enough for you that God should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?

(15) 3:125—pg.16: “Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught.

(16) 3:126—pg.16: God made it but a message of hope for you, and an assurance to your hearts: (in any case) there is no help except from God. The Exalted, the Wise:

· The scholars of Tafsir differ over whether the promise contained in these ayat referred to the Battle of Badr or Uhud. In 3:124, the statement: “Is it not enough for you that God should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?” is indicative of the Battle of Badr, and what took place there. However, in 3:125, if ye remain firm, and act aright implies the Muslims were not patient, which is characteristic of the battle of Uhud.

(17) 3:140—pg.21: If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others. Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that God may know those that believe, and that He may take to Himself from your ranks Martyr-witnesses (to Truth). And God loveth not those that do wrong.

(18) 3:141—pg.21: God’s object also is to purge those that are true in Faith and to deprive of blessing Those that resist Faith.

· These ayat assure those fighting in the cause of God that if a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the enemy as well. Those who would be killed in God’s cause and gladly offer their lives seeking His pleasure are Martyr-witnesses (to Truth).

(19) 3:146—pg.22: How many of the prophets fought (in God’s way), and with them (fought) Large bands of godly men? but they never lost heart if they met with disaster in God’s way, nor did they weaken (in will) nor give in. And God Loves those who are firm and steadfast.

· The scholars of Tafsir differ on the interpretation of this ayah. Ibn Jarir believes it means that many Prophets and their companions were killed in earlier times; others believe that this ayah means that many Prophets witnessed their companions’ death before their eyes. However, Ibn Ishaq says that many a Prophet was killed and he had many companions whose resolve did not weaken after their Prophet died, and they did not become feeble in the face of the enemy. What they suffered in Jihad in God’s cause and for the sake of their religion did not make them lose heart. God Loves those who are firm and steadfast.

(20) 3:152—pg.24: God did indeed fulfill His promise to you when ye with His permission Were about to annihilate your enemy, – until ye flinched and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed it after He brought you in sight (of the booty) which ye covet. Among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you but He forgave you: For God is full of grace to those who believe. (21) 3:153—pg.24: Behold! ye were climbing up the high ground, without even casting a side glance at any one, and the Apostle in your rear was calling you back. There did God give you one distress after another by way of requital, to teach you not to grieve for (the booty) that had escaped you and for (the ill) that had befallen you. For God is well aware of all that ye do.

· These ayat address the Battle of Uhud, where Muhammad fought alongside his companions, and God did indeed fulfill His promise by allowing them to slay the enemy.

(22) 3:154—pg.28: After (the excitement) of the distress, He sent down calm on a band of you overcome with slumber, while another band was stirred to anxiety by their own feelings, Moved by wrong suspicions of God – suspicions due to ignorance. They said: “What affair is this of ours?” Say thou: “Indeed, this affair is wholly God’s.” They hide in their minds what they dare not reveal to thee. They say (to themselves): “If we had had anything to do with this affair, We should not have been in the slaughter here.” Say: “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death”; but (all this was) that God might test what is in your breasts and purge what is in your hearts. For God knoweth well the secrets of your hearts.

(23) 3:155—pg.28: Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts Met, – it was Satan who caused them to fail, because of some (evil) they had done. But God Has blotted out (their fault): For God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.

· These ayat continue the story from the Battle of Uhud. God reminds His servants of His favor when He sent down calm on a band of you overcome with slumber while they were carrying their weapons and feeling distress and grief. In this case, slumber is a favor and carries meanings of calmness and safety.

(24) 3:156—pg.31: O ye who believe! Be not like the Unbelievers, who say of their brethren, when they are travelling through the Earth or engaged in fighting: “If they had stayed with us, they would not have died, or been slain.” This that God may make it a cause of sighs and regrets in their hearts. It is God that gives Life and Death, and God sees well all that ye do.

(25) 3:157—pg.31: And if ye are slain, or die, in the way of God, forgiveness and mercy from God are far better than all they could amass.

· God forbids His believing servants from the disbelievers’ false creed, seen in their statement about those who died in battle and during travel; “If they had stayed with us, they would not have died, or been slain.” Death and martyrdom in Jihad is a way of earning God’s forgiveness and mercy.

(26) 3:165—pg.32: What! When a single disaster smites you, although ye smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, do ye say? – “Whence is this?” Say (to them): “It is from yourselves: For God hath power over all things.” (27) 3:166—pg.32: What ye suffered on the day the two armies Met, was with the leave of God, in order that He might test the believers,- (28) 3:167—pg.32: And the Hypocrites also. These were told: “Come, fight in the way of God, or (at least) drive (The foe from your city).” They said: “Had we known how to fight, we should certainly have followed you.” They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith, saying with their lips what was not in their hearts but God hath full knowledge of all they conceal.

· The Battle of Uhud is referenced again in these ayat. God is reminding His followers of the victory they had (ye smote (your enemies) with one twice as great) during the Battle of Badr, while also warning them not to be nearer to Unbelief than to Faith.

(29) 3:169—pg.34: Think not of those who are slain in God’s way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord;

· God states that even though the martyrs were slain in God’s way in this life, their souls are alive and receiving provisions in the Dwelling of Everlasting Life. Muhammad is reported as saying “No soul that has a good standing with Allah and dies would wish to go back to the life of this world, except for the martyr. He would like to be returned to this life so that he could be martyred again, for he tastes the honor achieved from martyrdom.”

(30) 3:172—pg.37: Of those who answered the call of God and the Apostle, even after being wounded, those who do right and refrain from wrong have a great reward; – (31) 3:173—pg.37: Men said to them: “A great army is gathering against you”: And frightened them: But it (only) increased their Faith: They said: “For us God sufficeth, and He is the best disposer of affairs.”

· This occurred on the day of Hamra’ Al-Asad. After the idolators defeated the Muslims (at Uhud), they started on their way back home, but soon they were concerned because they did not finish off the Muslims in Medina, so they set out to make that battle the final one. When the Messenger of Allah got news of this, he commanded the Muslims to march to meet the disbelievers, to bring fear to their hearts and to demonstrate that the Muslims still had strength to fight, for us God sufficeth, and He is the best disposer of affairs. The Prophet only allowed those who were present during Uhud to accompany him, except for Jabir bin `Abdullah Al-Ansari, as we will mention. The Muslims mobilized, even after being wounded, in obedience to Allah and His Messenger.

(32) 3:195—pg.39: And their Lord hath accepted of them, and answered them: “Never will I suffer to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female: Ye are members, one of another: Those who have left their homes, or been driven out there from, or suffered harm in My Cause, or fought or been slain, – verily, I will blot out from them their iniquities, and admit them into Gardens with rivers flowing beneath; – A reward from the presence of God, and from His presence is the best of rewards.”

· This ayah was sent down by God in response to a question posed to Muhammad about women taking part in the Hijrah. All of God’s followers are equal in relation to gaining His reward (Ye are members, one of another). Hijrah is presented as leaving the land of shirk and migrating to the land of faith (Those who have left their homes).

(33) 4:071—pg.41: O ye who believe! Take your precautions, and either go forth in parties or go forth all together. (34) 4:072—pg.41: There are certainly among you men who would tarry behind: If a misfortune befalls you, they say: “God did favour us in that we were not present among them.”

(35) 4:074—pg.41: Let those fight in the cause of God Who sell the life of this world for the hereafter. To him who fighteth in the cause of God, – whether he is slain or gets victory – Soon shall We give him a reward of great (value).

· God commands His faithful servants, those fight in the cause of God, to take precautions against their enemies, by being prepared with the necessary weapons and supplies, and increasing the number of troops fighting in His cause. There are those men who would tarry behind and lure other people to do the same and refrain from joining Jihad. Since these men did not join the others in battle they consider this one of God’s favors on them (God did favour us in that we were not present among them) they are unaware of the reward that they might have gained from enduring war or martyrdom, if they were killed.

(36) 4:075—pg.42-3: And why should ye not fight in the cause of God and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)? – Men, women, and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!”

(37) 4:076—pg.42-3: Those who believe fight in the cause of God, and those who reject Faith Fight in the cause of Evil: So fight ye against the friends of Satan: feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan.

· God encourages His believing servants to perform Jihad in His cause and to strive hard to save the oppressed Muslims in Mecca—men, women and children who were restless because of having to remain there. Therefore, the believers fight in the cause of God to gain His pleasure, while those who reject Faith Fight in the cause of Evil in obedience to Satan. God then encourages the believers to fight His enemies.

(38) 4:077—pg.43: Hast thou not turned Thy vision to those who were told to hold back their hands (from fight) but establish regular prayers and spend in regular charity? When (at length) the order for fighting was issued to them, behold! a section of them feared men as – or even more than – they should have feared God: They said: “Our Lord! Why hast Thou ordered us to fight? Wouldst Thou not Grant us respite to our (natural) term, near (enough)?” Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world: the Hereafter is the best for those who do right: Never will ye be dealt with unjustly in the very least!

· In the beginning of Islam, Muslims in Mecca were commanded to establish regular prayers and spend in regular charity, so as to comfort the poor among them. They were also commanded to be forgiving and forbearing with the idolators and to observe patience with them at the time. However, they were eager, anticipating the time when they would be allowed to fight, so that they could punish their enemies. Yet, when (at length) the order for fighting was issued, just as Muslims wished, behold! A section of them feared men as – or even more than – they should have feared God.

(39) 4:084—pg.44: Then fight in God’s cause – Thou art held responsible only for thyself – and rouse the believers. It may be that God will restrain the fury of the Unbelievers; for God is the strongest in might and in punishment.

· God commands His servant and Messenger, Muhammad, to himself fight in Jihad and not to be concerned about those who do not fight in the cause of God. He is held responsible only for himself. Muhammad is commanded to rouse the believers, by encouraging them and strengthening their resolve in regards to Jihad.

(40) 4:089—pg.46: They but wish that ye should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they): But take not friends from their ranks until they flee in the way of God (From what is forbidden). But if they turn renegades, seize them and slay them wherever ye find them; and (in any case) take no friends or helpers from their ranks; – (41) 4:090—pg.46: Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. If God had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you: Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (Guarantees of) peace, then God Hath opened no way for you (to war against them). (42) 4:091—pg.46: Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people: Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto: if they withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands, seize them and slay them wherever ye get them: In their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them.

· These ayat address the hatred of disbelievers that wish that ye(Muslims) should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they), as well as dealing with those who hesitate in fighting Muslims (Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people), the different levels therein, and what to do with those who are hypocrites, confessing faith in Islam, yet worshipping what they will in secret (Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people: Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto).

(43) 4:094—pg.49: O ye who believe! When ye go abroad in the cause of God, investigate carefully, and say not to any one who offers you a salutation: “Thou art none of a believer!” Coveting the perishable goods of this life: with God are profits and spoils abundant. Even thus were ye yourselves before, till God conferred on you His favours: Therefore carefully investigate. For God is well aware of all that ye do.

· This ayah was revealed in response to a situation where a man tending a flock of sheep passed by the companions of the Prophet and said “Salam.” Muhammad’s companions thought to themselves “this man only said ‘Salam’ to protect himself” therefore they killed the man. Muhammad reminds his companions, in regards to the man, even thus were ye yourselves before (in Mecca), till God conferred on you His favours. The believing man they killed hid his faith with disbelieving people, just as Muhammad’s companions had done in Mecca.

(44) 4:095—pg.51: Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of God with their goods and their persons. God hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all (in Faith) Hath God promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward,

· This ayah refers to those who did not go to the Battle of Badr (Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt) and those who did (and those who strive and fight in the cause of God with their goods and their persons). Some of Muhammad’s companions said, “We are blind, O Messenger of God! Do we have an excuse?” So whoever has a disability, such as blindness, a limp, or an illness that prevents them from joining Jihad, they were not compared to the Mujahidin who strive in God’s cause with their selves and wealth, as those who are not disabled and did not join the Jihad were.

(45) 4:100—pg.53: He who forsakes his home in the cause of God, finds in the earth Many a refuge, wide and spacious: Should he die as a refugee from home for God and His Apostle, His reward becomes due and sure with God: And God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

· This ayah encourages believers to perform Hijrah (He who forsakes his home in the cause of God…) and abandon idolators, for wherever the believer emigrates, he finds in the earth Many a refuge, wide and spacious.

(46) 4:102—pg.55: When thou (O Apostle) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer, Let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with thee, Taking their arms with them: When they finish their prostrations, let them Take their position in the rear. And let the other party come up which hath not yet prayed – and let them pray with thee, Taking all precaution, and bearing arms: the Unbelievers wish, if ye were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if ye put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because ye are ill; but take (every) precaution for yourselves. For the Unbelievers God hath prepared a humiliating punishment.

· During battle this ayah, the fear prayer, came down to Muhammad (When thou (O Apostle) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer). It gives Muhammad and his companions guidelines for praying in battle (But there is no blame on you if ye put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because ye are ill).

(47) 4:104—pg.57: And slacken not in following up the enemy: If ye are suffering hardships, they are suffering similar hardships; but ye have Hope from God, while they have none. And God is full of knowledge and wisdom.

· This ayah encourages believers to pursue the enemy (And slacken not in following up the enemy) and know that as they suffer injuries, the enemy does also (If ye are suffering hardships, they are suffering similar hardships). Believers are reminded that they have hope in God’s promises and word, unlike the disbelievers (but ye have Hope from God, while they have none).

(48) 5:033—pg.58: The punishment of those who wage war against God and His Apostle, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter;

· This ayah was revealed concerning the idolators, those among them who repent before being apprehended, they will still be liable for the punishment of those who wage war against God and His Apostle, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land.

(49) 5:035—pg.63: O ye who believe! Do your duty to God, seek the means of approach unto Him, and strive with might and main in his cause: that ye may prosper.

· God commands His faithful servants to fear Him in Taqwa (O ye who believe! Do your duty to God), which if mentioned along with acts of obedience, it means to refrain from the prohibitions and the prohibited matters.

(50) 5:082—pg.64: Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, “We are Christians”: because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.

· This ayah was revealed concerning a delegation that the King of Ethiopia sent to the Prophet in order to hear his words and observe his qualities. When the delegation met with the Prophet and he recited the Qur’an to them, they embraced Islam, cried and were humbled (and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, “We are Christians”). They were some followers of the religion of Jesus, son of Mary, who when they saw Muslims and heard the Qur’an, they became Muslims without hesitation.

(51) 8:001—pg.65: They ask thee concerning (things taken as) spoils of war. Say: “(such) spoils are at the disposal of God and the Apostle: So fear God, and keep straight the relations between yourselves: Obey God and His Apostle, if ye do believe.”

· This ayah was revealed concerning the Battle of Badr. The spoils of war were for the Messenger of God, and none had a share in them ((such) spoils are at the disposal of God and the Apostle). The believers are commanded to have Taqwa of God in all affairs, settling matters of differences between each other without doing wrong, having no dispute, and no differing (So fear God, and keep straight the relations between yourselves).

(52) 8:005—pg.67: Just as thy Lord ordered thee out of thy house in truth, even though a party among the Believers disliked it, (53) 8:007—pg.67: Behold! God promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but God willed to justify the Truth according to His words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers; –

· These ayat describe the way in which God directed the believers (Just as thy Lord ordered thee out of thy house in truth), and their attitude concerning war with idolators (even though a party among the Believers disliked it). God willed for the believers to meet the armed enemy (rather than the caravan) so that He makes them prevail above the enemy and gain victory, making His religion apparent and Islam victorious and dominant above all religions (Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but God willed to justify the Truth according to His words).

(54) 8:009—pg.69: Remember ye implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you: “I will assist you with a thousand of the angels, ranks on ranks.”

· This ayah describes a situation during the Battle of Badr, where ranks on ranks of angels were deployed under the leadership of the angels Gabriel and Michael to help Muhammad and his companions.

(55) 8:012—pg.71: Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): “I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instil terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them.”

· This ayah was given to support the believers (Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): “I am with you: give firmness to the Believers), and strengthen their battle front against the enemy (I will instil terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers).

(56) 8:015—pg.72: O ye who believe! when ye meet the Unbelievers in hostile array, never turn your backs to them. (57) 8:016—pg.72: If any do turn his back to them on such a day – unless it be in a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he draws on himself the wrath of God, and his abode is Hell, – an evil refuge (indeed)!

· This ayah encourages believers not to flee from the enemy, leaving other Muslims behind (O ye who believe! when ye meet the Unbelievers in hostile array, never turn your backs to them), and whoever flees from the enemy by way of planning to pretend that he is afraid of the enemy, so that they follow him and he takes the chance and returns to kill the enemy (a stratagem of war), then there is no sin on him.

(58) 8:017—pg.74: It is not ye who slew them; it was God: when thou threwest (a handful of dust), it was not thy act, but God’s: in order that He might test the Believers by a gracious trial from Himself: for God is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).

· God states that He creates the actions that the servants perform and that whatever good actions they take (It is not ye who slew them; it was God), it is He Who should be praised for them; for He directed and helped them perform these actions. God then mentioned the handful of sand that His Prophet threw at the disbelievers at the Battle of Badr, when he went out of his bunker (when thou threwest (a handful of dust), it was not thy act, but God’s: in order that He might test the Believers by a gracious trial from Himself).

(59) 8:039—pg.75: And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily God doth see all that they do. (60) 8:040—pg.75: If they refuse, be sure that God is your Protector – the best to protect and the best to help.

· These ayat describe fighting until there is no more fitnah; fitnah mentioned here means, until no Muslim is persecuted so that he abandons his religion (And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God altogether and everywhere).

(61) 8:041—pg.78-9: And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to God, – and to the Apostle, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer, – if ye do believe in God and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Testing, – the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For God hath power over all things.

· God explains the spoils of war in detail, as He has specifically allowed it for this honorable Ummah over all others. All the booty that ye may acquire (in war) refers to war spoils captured from the disbelievers, using armies and instruments of war. Believers are commanded to surrender one fifth of the spoils as a part of faith (a fifth share is assigned to God, – and to the Apostle, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer, – if ye do believe in God and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant).

(62) 8:042—pg.82: Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than ye. Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet, ye would certainly have failed in the appointment: But (thus ye met), that God might accomplish a matter already enacted; that those who died might die after a clear Sign (had been given), and those who lived might live after a Clear Sign (had been given). And verily God is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).

· This ayah describes the Battle of Badr, when God had decreed that He would bring glory to Islam and its people, while disgracing Shirk and its people (But (thus ye met), that God might accomplish a matter already enacted).

(63) 8:043—pg.84: Remember in thy dream God showed them to thee as few: if He had shown them to thee as many, ye would surely have been discouraged, and ye would surely have disputed in (your) decision; but God saved (you): for He knoweth well the (secrets) of (all) hearts. (64) 8:044—pg.84: And remember when ye met, He showed them to you as few in your eyes, and He made you appear as contemptible in their eyes: that God might accomplish a matter already enacted. For to God do all questions go back (for decision).

· This ayah recalls an incident during the Battle of Badr; Mujahid said, “In a dream, God showed the Prophet the enemy as few. The Prophet conveyed this news to his Companions and their resolve strengthened” (Remember in thy dream God showed them to thee as few). God made them see few disbelievers in their eyes, so that they would be encouraged and feel eager to meet them (And remember when ye met, He showed them to you as few in your eyes).

(65) 8:045—pg.85: O ye who believe! When ye meet a force, be firm, and call God in remembrance much (and often) that ye may prosper: (66) 8:046—pg.85: And obey God and His Apostle; and fall into no disputes, lest ye lose heart and your power depart; and be patient and persevering: For God is with those who patiently persevere:

· God instructs His faithful servants in the manners of fighting and methods of courage when meeting the enemy in battle (O ye who believe! When ye meet a force, be firm, and call God in remembrance much (and often) that ye may prosper).

(67) 8:047—pg.86-7: And be not like those who started from their homes insolently and to be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the path of God: For God compasseth round about all that they do. (68) 8:048—pg.86-7: Remember Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them, and said: “No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you”: But when the two forces came in sight of each other, he turned on his heels, and said: “Lo! I am clear of you; lo! I see what ye see not; Lo! I fear God: for God is strict in punishment.”

· These ayat address situations surrounding the Battle of Badr. After God commanded the believers to fight in His cause sincerely and to be mindful of Him, He commanded not to imitate the idolators, who went out of their homes (And be not like those who started from their homes insolently and to be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the path of God). On the day of Badr, Satan was present in the form of a man from Bani Mudlij seeking to strengthen the idolators and lead them to victory over the Muslims (Remember Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them, and said: “No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you).

(69) 8:057—pg.88: If ye gain the mastery over them in war, disperse, with them, those who follow them, that they may remember.

· This Ayah commands punishing the enemy harshly and inflicting casualties on them (disperse, with them, those who follow them). This way, other enemies, Arabs and non-Arabs, will be afraid and take a lesson from their end (that they may remember).

(70) 8:058—pg.89: If thou fearest treachery from any group, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms: for God loveth not the treacherous

· This ayah addresses treaties made with other groups (throw back (their covenant) to them), giving guidelines for war and the significance of treaties that are null and void ((so as to be) on equal terms).

(71) 8:059—pg.90: Let not the unbelievers think that they can get the better (of the godly): they will never frustrate (them). (72) 8:060—pg.90: Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of God and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom God doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of God, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly.

· These ayat reassure the companions of Muhammad that the disbelievers have not escaped God or that He is unable to grasp them. Rather, they are under the power of God’s ability and in the grasp of His will; they will never escape (Let not the unbelievers think that they can get the better (of the godly): they will never frustrate (them)). God commands Muslims to prepare for war against disbelievers, as much as possible, according to affordability and availability (Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war).

(73) 8:065—pg.92: O Prophet! rouse the Believers to the fight. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers: for these are a people without understanding.

(74) 8:066—pg.92: For the present, God hath lightened your (task), for He knoweth that there is a weak spot in you: But (even so), if there are a hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred, and if a thousand, they will vanquish two thousand, with the leave of God: for God is with those who patiently persevere.

· God encourages His Prophet and the believers to fight and struggle against the enemy, and wage war against their forces (O Prophet! rouse the Believers to the fight). God affirms that He will suffice, aid, support, and help the believers against their enemies, even if their enemies are numerous and have sufficient supplies, while the believers are few (For the present, God hath lightened your (task), for He knoweth that there is a weak spot in you: But (even so), if there are a hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred, and if a thousand, they will vanquish two thousand).

(75) 8:067—pg.94: It is not fitting for a prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he hath thoroughly subdued the land. Ye look for the temporal goods of this world; but God looketh to the Hereafter: And God is Exalted in might, Wise. (76) 8:068—pg.94: Had it not been for a previous ordainment from God, a severe penalty would have reached you for the (ransom) that ye took. (77) 8:069—pg.94: But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good: but fear God: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

· These ayat were revealed in regards to the prisoners of the Battle of Badr (It is not fitting for a prophet that he should have prisoners of war). The Messenger of God said, “war booty was never allowed for any among mankind except us.” And God revealed But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good.

(78) 8:070—pg.95: O Prophet! say to those who are captives in your hands: “If God findeth any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” (79) 8:071—pg.95: But if they have treacherous designs against thee, (O Apostle!), they have already been in treason against God, and so hath He given (thee) power over them. And God so He Who hath (full) knowledge and wisdom.

· These ayat address a time just before the Battle of Badr when Muhammad’s companions question him in regards to taking captive those who are family among the tribe of Quraysh and receiving ransom for them. At that point God revealed “O Prophet! say to those who are captives in your hands: “If God findeth any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” Muhammad is warned about those who have already been in treason against God at the battle of Badr by committing disbelief in Him.

(80) 8:072—pg.98: Those who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the Faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of God, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid, – these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another. As to those who believed but came not into exile, ye owe no duty of protection to them until they come into exile; but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them, except against a people with whom ye have a treaty of mutual alliance. And (remember) God seeth all that ye do.

· Here God mentions the types of believers, dividing them into the Muhajirin, who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the Faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of God. They gave up their wealth and themselves in this cause. There are also the Ansar, the Muslims of Medina, who gave (them) asylum and aid to their Muhajirin brethren in their own homes and comforted them with their wealth. They also gave aid to God and His Messenger by fighting alongside the Muhajirun.

(81) 8:073—pg.100: The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: Unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief.

· After God mentioned that the believers are the supporters of one another (The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another), He severed all ties of support between them and the disbelievers.

(82) 8:074—pg.100-1: Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of God as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid, – these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.

(83) 8:075—pg.100-1: And those who accept Faith subsequently, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith in your company, – they are of you. But kindred by blood have prior rights against each other in the Book of God. Verily God is well-acquainted with all things.

· After God affirmed the ruling of loyalty and protection between the believers in this life (Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of God as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid, – these are (all) in very truth the Believers), He then mentioned their destination in the Hereafter. God also affirmed the faith of the believers, just as mentioned in the beginning of this Surah, and that He will reward them with the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous. God then mentioned that those who follow the path of the believers in faith and performing good deeds, will be with them in the Hereafter.

(84) 9:005—pg.102: But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war) but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for them: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

· This ayah was revealed to Muhammad, giving the Muslims warrant to fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war). It abrogated every agreement of peace between the Prophet and any idolator, every treaty, and every term; no idolator had any more treaty or promise of safety ever since Surah Bara’ah was revealed. They have been commanded to fight the people until they testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except God and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity.

(85) 9:012—pg.103: But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for your Faith, – fight ye the chiefs of Unfaith: for their oaths are nothing to them: that thus they may be restrained.

· God says, if the idolators with whom you conducted peace treaties for an appointed term violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for your Faith, with disapproval and criticism, it is because of this that one who curses the Messenger, peace be upon him, or attacks the religion of Islam by way of criticism and disapproval, they are to be fought.

(86) 9:013—pg.104: Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the Apostle, and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you? Do ye fear them? Nay, it is God Whom ye should more justly fear, if ye believe! (87) 9:014—pg.104: Fight them, and God will punish them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you (to victory) over them, heal the breasts of Believers,

· These ayat encourage, direct and recommend fighting against the idolators who break the terms of their covenants (Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths), those who tried to expel the Messenger from Mecca (plotted to expel the Apostle). Surah 9 ayah 13 refers to the Battle of Badr when the idolators marched to protect their caravan (and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you). It was also said that these ayat refer to the idolators breaking the peace agreement with Muslims and aiding Bani Bakr, their allies, against Khuza`ah, the ally of the Messenger of God.

(88) 9:016—pg.105: Or think ye that ye shall be abandoned, as though God did not know those among you who strive with might and main, and take none for friends and protectors except God, His Apostle, and the (community of) Believers? But God is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.

· Since God legislated Jihad for His servants, He explained that the wisdom behind doing so includes testing His servants, distinguishing between those who obey Him and those who disobey Him (Or think ye that ye shall be abandoned, as though God did not know those among you who strive with might and main). God is the All-Knower of what occurred, what will occur, and the true essence of what might occur had He decided it (But God is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do). Therefore, God knows everything before it occurs and how it will occur, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, nor a Lord except Him.

(89) 9:019—pg.105-6: Do ye make the giving of drink to pilgrims, or the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque, equal to (the pious service of) those who believe in God and the Last Day, and strive with might and main in the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God: and God guides not those who do wrong. (90) 9:020—pg.105-6: Those who believe, and suffer exile and strive with might and main, in God’s cause, with their goods and their persons, have the highest rank in the sight of God: they are the people who will achieve (salvation).

· These ayat address an issue relating to those who regard the giving of drink to pilgrims, or the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque, equal to (the pious service of) those who believe in God and the Last Day, and strive with might and main in the cause of God. God declared that faith and Jihad with the Prophet are better than the idolators’ maintaining the Sacred Mosque and providing water for pilgrims (Those who believe, and suffer exile and strive with might and main, in God’s cause, with their goods and their persons, have the highest rank in the sight of God).

(91) 9:024—pg.107: Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth that ye have gained; the commerce in which ye fear a decline: or the dwellings in which ye delight – are dearer to you than God, or His Apostle, or the striving in His cause; – then wait until God brings about His decision: and God guides not the rebellious.

· God commands shunning the disbelievers, even if they are one’s parents or children (If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred), and prohibits taking them as supporters if they choose disbelief instead of faith (then wait until God brings about His decision: and God guides not the rebellious).

(92) 9:025—pg.108: Assuredly God did help you in many battle-fields and on the day of Hunain: Behold! your great numbers elated you, but they availed you naught: the land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and ye turned back in retreat. (93) 9:026—pg.108: But God did pour His calm on the Apostle and on the Believers, and sent down forces which ye saw not: He punished the Unbelievers; thus doth He reward those without Faith.

· These ayat are describing the Battle of Hunayn, in which many of Muhammad’s companions fled (Behold! your great numbers elated you, but they availed you naught: the land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and ye turned back in retreat), yet God delivered the believers who remained with Muhammad (But God did pour His calm on the Apostle and on the Believers, and sent down forces which ye saw not), showing that victory comes from God alone, by His aid and decree, not because of their numbers or adequate supplies.

(94) 9:029—pg.111: Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His Apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

· This ayah addresses those who believe in the scriptures yet reject God’s messenger and the law he brought, instructing the Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination. (Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His Apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book).

(95) 9:036—pg.114: The number of months in the sight of God is twelve (in a year) – so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that God is with those who restrain themselves.

· This ayah describes the division of time that has turned to its original form which was current when God created the heavens and the earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred (The number of months in the sight of God is twelve (in a year )- so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage). Permission for the believers to fight the idolators in the Sacred Month, if the idolators initiate hostilities therein is also issued in this ayah (and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together).

(96) 9:038—pg.117: O ye who believe! what is the matter with you, that, when ye are asked to go forth in the cause of God, ye cling heavily to the earth? Do ye prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter.

(97) 9:039—pg.117: Unless ye go forth, He will punish you with a grievous penalty, and put others in your place; but Him ye would not harm in the least. For God hath power over all things.

· God admonishes those who lagged behind the Messenger of God in the Battle of Tabuk, at a time when fruits were ripe and shades tempting in the intense and terrible heat (O ye who believe! what is the matter with you, that, when ye are asked to go forth in the cause of God, ye cling heavily to the earth?).

(98) 9:041—pg.118: Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the cause of God. That is best for you, if ye (but) knew.

· In this ayah, God commands mass mobilization together with the Messenger of God for the battle of Tabuk, to fight the disbelieving, People of the Book, the Romans, and God’s enemies (Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the cause of God). God ordained that the believers all march forth with the Messenger regardless whether they felt active, lazy, at ease or had difficult circumstances.

(99) 9:044—pg.120: Those who believe in God and the Last Day ask thee for no exemption from fighting with their goods and persons. And God knoweth well those who do their duty.

· This ayah is describing Jihad as an act of worship, which is why when God called them to perform Jihad; they obeyed and hasten to act in His obedience (Those who believe in God and the Last Day ask thee for no exemption from fighting with their goods and persons).

(100) 9:052—pg.121: Say: “Can you expect for us (any fate) other than one of two glorious things – (Martyrdom or victory)? But we can expect for you either that God will send his punishment from Himself, or by our hands. So wait (expectant) we too will wait with you.”

· God revealed this ayah to Muhammad to speak to his companions regarding their fate in either martyrdom or victory against the enemy (Say: “Can you expect for us (any fate) other than one of two glorious things – (Martyrdom or victory)?).

(101) 9:073—pg.122: O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell, – an evil refuge indeed.

· God commands His Messenger to strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and to be harsh against them (O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them). God also commanded him to be merciful with the believers who followed him, informing him that the destination of the disbelievers and hypocrites is the Fire in the Hereafter (Their abode is Hell, – an evil refuge indeed).

(102) 9:081—pg.122: Those who were left behind (in the Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the Apostle of God: they hated to strive and fight, with their goods and their persons, in the cause of God: they said, “Go not forth in the heat.” Say, “The fire of Hell is fiercer in heat.” If only they could understand!

· God admonishes the hypocrites who lagged behind from the Battle of Tabuk with the Companions of the Messenger of God, rejoicing that they remained behind after the Messenger departed for the battle (Those who were left behind (in the Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the Apostle of God: they hated to strive and fight, with their goods and their persons, in the cause of God).

(103) 9:083—pg.124: If, then, God bring thee back to any of them, and they ask thy permission to come out (with thee), say: “Never shall ye come out with me, nor fight an enemy with me: for ye preferred to sit inactive on the first occasion: Then sit ye (now) with those who lag behind.”

· This ayah refers to the Battle of Tabuk, when the twelve hypocrites lagged behind and did not fight in the cause of God. They are prohibited from fighting the enemy in battles due to their disobedience to God’s cause (If, then, God bring thee back to any of them, and they ask thy permission to come out (with thee), say: “Never shall ye come out with me, nor fight an enemy with me).

(104) 9:086—pg.125: When a Sura comes down, enjoining them to believe in God and to strive and fight along with His Apostle, those with wealth and influence among them ask thee for exemption, and say: “Leave us (behind): we would be with those who sit (at home).”

· God chastises and admonishes those who stayed away from Jihad and refrained from performing it, even though they had the supplies, means and ability to join it. They asked the Messenger for permission to stay behind (those with wealth and influence among them ask thee for exemption…”Leave us (behind): we would be with those who sit (at home)”).

(105) 9:088—pg.125: But the Apostle, and those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons: for them are (all) good things: and it is they who will prosper.

· This ayah describes the qualities, as well as the reward of faithful believers (those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons: for them are (all) good things: and it is they who will prosper).

(106) 9:092—pg.126: Nor (is there blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mounts, and when thou saidst, “I can find no mounts for you,” they turned back, their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they had no resources wherewith to provide the expenses.

· Muhammad recited this ayah (Nor (is there blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mounts) in response to some of his companions who questioned him regarding those who have remained behind in Medina: “they never spent anything, crossed a valley, or afflicted hardship on an enemy, but they were sharing the reward with you.” Muhammad responds by saying that they have been held back by a (legal) excuse. Then, God criticized those who seek permission to remain behind while they are rich, admonishing them for wanting to stay behind with women who remained in their homes.

(107) 9:111—pg.127: God hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur’an: and who is more faithful to his covenant than God? then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme.

· God states that He has compensated His believing servants for their lives and wealth—if they give them up in His cause—with Paradise (God hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise)). This demonstrates God’s favor, generosity and bounty, for He has accepted the good that He already owns and bestowed, as a price from His faithful servants.

(108) 9:120—pg.128: It was not fitting for the people of Medina and the Bedouin Arabs of the neighbourhood, to refuse to follow God’s Apostle, nor to prefer their own lives to his: because nothing could they suffer or do, but was reckoned to their credit as a deed of righteousness, – whether they suffered thirst, or fatigue, or hunger, in the cause of God, or trod paths to raise the ire of the Unbelievers, or received any injury whatever from an enemy: for God suffereth not the reward to be lost of those who do good; –

· God criticizes the people of Medina and the Bedouins around it, who did not participate in the Battle of Tabuk with the Messenger of God (It was not fitting for the people of Medina and the Bedouin Arabs of the neighbourhood, to refuse to follow God’s Apostle). They sought to preserve themselves rather than comfort the Messenger during the hardship that he suffered in that battle (nor to prefer their own lives to his). They incurred a loss in their share of the reward (for God suffereth not the reward to be lost of those who do good).

(109) 9:122—pg.129: Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion, and admonish the people when they return to them, – that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).

· This ayah explains God’s order to participate in battle on all Arab neighborhoods, and that at least a group of every tribe should march for Jihad. Those who went with the Messenger would gain instructions and studies in the revelation that came down to him, and warn their people about that battle when they returned to them (if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion, and admonish the people when they return to them). This way, the group that went with the Prophet will achieve both goals: Jihad and learning the revelation from the Prophet. This ayah is said to abrogate 9:041 and 9:120.

(110) 9:123—pg.131: O ye who believe! fight the unbelievers who gird you about, and let them find firmness in you: and know that God is with those who fear Him.

· God commands the believers to fight the disbelievers, the closest in area to the Islamic state, then the farthest. This is why the Messenger of God started fighting the idolators in the Arabian Peninsula (O ye who believe! fight the unbelievers who gird you about, and let them find firmness in you). When he finished with them and God gave him control over Mecca, Medina, At-Ta’if, Yemen, Yamamah, Hajr, Khaybar, Hadramawt and other Arab provinces, and the various Arab tribes entered Islam in large crowds, he then started fighting the People of the Scriptures.

(111) 16:110—pg.133: But verily thy Lord, – to those who leave their homes after trials and persecutions, – and who thereafter strive and fight for the faith and patiently persevere, – Thy Lord, after all this is oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

· This ayah refers to another group of people who were oppressed in Mecca and whose position with their own people was weak, so they went along with them when they were tried by them. Then they managed to escape by emigrating, leaving their homeland, families and wealth behind, seeking the pleasure and forgiveness of God. They joined the believers and fought with them against the disbelievers, bearing hardship with patience (-to those who leave their homes after trials and persecutions, – and who thereafter strive and fight for the faith and patiently persevere). God tells them that after this, meaning after their giving in when put to the test, He will forgive them and show mercy to them when they are resurrected (Thy Lord, after all this is oft-forgiving, Most Merciful).

(112) 22:039—pg.133: To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; – and verily, God is most powerful for their aid; –

· This ayah was revealed about Muhammad and his Companions, when they were expelled from Mecca. According to Ibn Abbas and others, this is the first ayah which was revealed about Jihad. God prescribed Jihad at an appropriate time, because when they were in Mecca, the idolators outnumbered them by more than ten to one. Were they to engage in fighting at that time, the results would have been disastrous. When the idolators went to extremes to persecute Muslims, to expel the Prophet and resolving to kill him; when they sent his Companions into exile here and there, so that some went to Ethiopia and others went to Medina; when they settled in Medina and the Messenger of God joined them there, and they gathered around him and lent him their support, and they had a place where Islam prevailed, and a stronghold to which they could retreat; then God prescribed Jihad against the enemy, and this was the first ayah to be revealed for it (To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged).

(113) 22:058—pg.135: Those who leave their homes in the cause of God, and are then slain or die, – On them will God bestow verily a goodly Provision: Truly God is He Who bestows the best provision.

· God tells us that those who migrate for the sake of God, seeking to earn His pleasure and that which is with Him, leaving behind their homelands, families and friends, leaving their countries for the sake of God and His Messenger to support His religion, then they are killed, i.e., in Jihad, or they die, i.e., they pass away without being involved in fighting (Those who leave their homes in the cause of God, and are then slain or die), they will have earned an immense reward (On them will God bestow verily a goodly Provision).

(114) 22:078—pg.135-6: And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive, (with sincerity and under discipline). He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the cult of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation) that the Apostle may be a witness for you, and ye be witnesses for mankind! So establish regular Prayer, give regular Charity, and hold fast to God! He is your Protector – the Best to protect and the Best to help!

· This ayah is God’s message to the believers, encouraging them that He has selected and chosen them over all other nations, and has favored them and blessed them and honored them with the noblest of Messengers and the noblest of Laws (He has chosen you). God has not given them more than they can bear and He has not obliged them to do anything that will cause difficulty except that He has created for them a way out (and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion). So the Salah, which is the most important pillar of Islam after the two testimonies of faith, is obligatory (So establish regular Prayer, give regular Charity, and hold fast to God!).

(115) 24:053—pg.138: They swear their strongest oaths by God that, if only thou wouldst command them, they would leave (their homes). Say: “Swear ye not; Obedience is (more) reasonable; verily, God is well acquainted with all that ye do.”

· This ayah addresses the swearing of oaths as a device for screening evil actions in the sight of God (They swear their strongest oaths by God). He knows whether the believer’s obedience is merely verbal and is not accompanied by action (God is well acquainted with all that ye do).

(116) 24:055—pg.139: God has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion – the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived), to one of security and peace: ‘They will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me. ‘If any do reject Faith after this, they are rebellious and wicked.

· This ayah is a promise from God to His Messenger, revealed after ten years spent in Mecca waiting faithfully on God, as the Prophet and his companions called people in secret to worship God Alone with no partner or associate (and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived), to one of security and peace: ‘They will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me).

(117) 25:052—pg.143: Therefore listen not to the Unbelievers, but strive against them with the utmost strenuousness, with the (Qur’an).

· This ayah encourages the Prophet and his companions to strive against unbelievers using the Qur’an.

(118) 29:006—pg.143: And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls: for God is free of all needs from all creation.

· This ayah describes God as having no need of the deeds of His servants, and even if all of them were to be as pious as the most pious man among them, that would not add to His dominion in the slightest (for God is free of all needs from all creation). He will still give to those who believe and do righteous deeds the best of rewards, which is that He will expiate for them their bad deeds, and will reward them according to the best deeds that they did (And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls).

(119) 29:069—pg.144: And those who strive in Our (cause), – We will certainly guide them to our Paths: For verily God is with those who do right.

· This ayah addresses the Messenger and his companions, assuring them that God will help them to follow His path in this world and the Hereafter (And those who strive in Our (cause), – We will certainly guide them to our Paths). Righteousness means doing good to those who ill-treat you, it does not mean doing good to those who do good to you (For verily God is with those who do right).

(120) 33:015—pg.145: And yet they had already covenanted with God not to turn their backs, and a covenant with God must (surely) be answered for.

· This ayah addresses believers who are weak, and would possibly abandon their faith if they had been surrounded by the enemy in Medina and forced to become disbelievers (33:014). Then God reminds them of the promise they had made to Him before this fear struck them, that they would not turn their backs or flee from the battlefield (And yet they had already covenanted with God not to turn their backs, and a covenant with God must (surely) be answered for.)

(121) 33:018—pg.146: Verily God knows those among you who keep back (men) and those who say to their brethren, “Come along to us”, but come not to the fight except for just a little while.

· This ayah describes those hypocrites who lure men away from fighting to the shade to enjoy fruit (Verily God knows those among you who keep back (men) and those who say to their brethren, “Come along to us”).

(122) 33:020—pg.147: They think that the Confederates have not withdrawn; and if the Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, and seeking news about you (from a safe distance) and if they were in your midst, they would fight but little.

· This ayah refers to the Confederates who come back from fighting the enemy, and do not desire to be in Medina with the others; rather they would like to stay in the desert inquiring about those who fought the enemy (and if the Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, and seeking news about you (from a safe distance)), because they are cowardly and weak (and if they were in your midst, they would fight but little).

(123) 33:025—pg.147: And God turned back the Unbelievers for (all) their fury: no advantage did they gain; and enough is God for the believers in their fight. And God is full of Strength, able to enforce His Will.

· God tells us how he drove the Confederates away from Medina by sending against them a wind and troops of angels (And God turned back the Unbelievers for (all) their fury: no advantage did they gain; and enough is God for the believers in their fight). This Ayah indicates that there would be a cessation of war between the believers and Quraysh; after this, the idolators did not attack the Muslims, on the contrary, the Muslims attacked them in their own land (And God is full of Strength, able to enforce His Will).

(124) 33:026—pg.148-9: And those of the People of the Book who aided them – God did take them down from their strongholds and cast terror into their hearts. (So that) some ye slew, and some ye made prisoners.

(125) 33:027—pg.148-9: And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods, and of a land which ye had not frequented (before). And God has power over all things.

· These ayat address a situation between Muhammad, with his companions, and Banu Qurayzah, who were Jews from one of the tribes of Israel (And those of the People of the Book). When the Confederates came and camped outside Medina, Banu Qurayzah broke the covenant that existed between them and the Messenger of God. Banu Qurayzah had supported the idolators in their war against Muhammad.

(126) 33:050—pg.151-2: O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom God has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts, and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts, who migrated (from Makka) with thee; and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her; – this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large) We know what We have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their right hands possess; – in order that there should be no difficulty for thee. And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

· This ayah addresses marriage rights and procedures for the Messenger of God. (O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom God has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts, and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts, who migrated (from Makka) with thee; and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her;). This command is only for the Prophet; believers are excluded from these rights (this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large).

(127) 47:004—pg.154: Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been God’s Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself) but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the Way of God, – He will never let their deeds be lost.

· In this ayah, God gives the believers clear directions on what they should employ in their fights against the idolators, as well as what to do to them when they are captured (Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom). This ayah was revealed after the Battle of Badr. At that time, God reproached the believers for sparing many of the enemy’s soldiers, and holding too many captives in order to take ransom from them.

(128) 47:020—pg.156: Those who believe say, “Why is not a sura sent down (for us)?” But when a sura of basic or categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at the approach of death. But more fitting for them –

· God mentions that the believers were hoping that Jihad would be legislated (Those who believe say, “Why is not a sura sent down (for us)?”). But when God ordained it, many of the people turned back (But when a sura of basic or categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at the approach of death).

(129) 48:015—pg.157: Those who lagged behind (will say), when ye (are free to) march and take booty (in war): “Permit us to follow you.” They wish to change God’s decree: Say: “Not thus will ye follow us: God has already declared (this) beforehand”: then they will say, “But ye are jealous of us.” Nay, but little do they understand (such things).

· God characterizes the Bedouins who lagged behind the Messenger of God during the `Umrah of Hudaybiyyah, saying that when the Prophet and his Companions later went on to conquer Khaybar, the Bedouins asked them to take them along (Those who lagged behind (will say), when ye (are free to) march and take booty (in war): “Permit us to follow you”). They were hoping to collect war booty, having been absent when it was time to fight the enemy and enduring with patience therein. God the Exalted ordered His Messenger to refuse to give them permission to accompany him, being a punishment that is similar to their error (Say: “Not thus will ye follow us: God has already declared (this) beforehand”).

(130) 48:016—pg.158: Say to the desert Arabs who lagged behind: “Ye shall be summoned (to fight) against a people given to vehement war: then shall ye fight, or they shall submit. Then if ye show obedience, God will grant you a goodly reward, but if ye turn back as ye did before, He will punish you with a grievous Penalty.”

(131) 48:017—pg.158: No blame is there on the blind, nor is there blame on the lame, nor on one ill (if he joins not the war): But he that obeys God and his Apostle, – (God) will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow; and he who turns back, (God) will punish him with a grievous Penalty.

· Scholars of Tafsir differ over who the people mentioned here are (Say to the desert Arabs who lagged behind). They are people experienced at warfare who will be called to Jihad (“Ye shall be summoned (to fight) against a people given to vehement war). They are to fight in the cause of God, through constant warfare, until they become victorious over them or the enemy surrenders (then shall ye fight, or they shall submit).

(132) 48:022—pg.159: If the Unbelievers should fight you, they would certainly turn their backs; then would they find neither protector nor helper.

(133) 48:024—pg.159: And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave you the victory over them. And God sees well all that ye do.

· God delivers the glad tidings to His believing servants that if the Unbelievers should fight you, they would certainly turn their backs. God would have given victory to His Messenger and His faithful servants. God saved both parties from battle and brought forth a peace treaty that produced good results for the believers, in addition to, earning them the good end in this life and the Hereafter (And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka).

(134) 49:015—pg.160: Only those are Believers who have believed in God and His Apostle, and have never since doubted, but have striven with their belongings and their persons in the Cause of God: Such are the sincere ones.

· This ayah refers to believers who have believed in God and His Apostle, and have never since doubted; they have perfect faith, and gladly gave their life and the most precious of their wealth in obedience to God as a means of seeking His pleasure.

(135) 59:002—pg.162: It is He Who got out the Unbelievers among the People of the Book from their homes at the first gathering (of the forces). Little did ye think that they would get out: And they thought that their fortresses would defend them from God! But the (Wrath of) God came to them from quarters from which they little expected (it), and cast terror into their hearts, so that they destroyed their dwellings by their own hands and the hands of the Believers, take warning, then, O ye with eyes (to see)!

(136) 59:005—pg.162: Whether ye cut down (O ye Muslim!) The tender palm-trees, or ye left them standing on their roots, it was by leave of God, and in order that He might cover with shame the rebellious transgresses.

· These ayat refer to a time before the Battle of Badr when the Messenger of God migrated to Medina, and made a peace treaty with the Jewish tribe of Bani An-Nadir, stipulating that he would not fight them and they would not fight him. They soon betrayed the treaty that they made with God’s Messenger. The Prophet forced them to evacuate and abandon their fortified forts that Muslims did not think they would ever control (It is He Who got out the Unbelievers among the People of the Book from their homes at the first gathering (of the forces). Little did ye think that they would get out). When the Messenger of God laid siege to Bani An-Nadir, to humiliate them and bring fear and terror to their hearts, he ordered their date trees to be cut down (Whether ye cut down (O ye Muslim!) The tender palm-trees, or ye left them standing on their roots, it was by leave of God, and in order that He might cover with shame the rebellious transgresses).

(137) 59:006—pg.167: What God has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them – for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: but God gives power to His apostles over any He pleases: and God has power over all things.

(138) 59:007—pg.167: What God has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from the people of the townships, – belongs to God, – to His Apostle and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear God; for God is strict in Punishment

· God explains the regulations for Fai’, the booty that the Muslims acquire from the disbelievers, referring to Bani An-Nadir, without fighting them or using cavalry and camelry in war against them (What God has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them – for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry).

139) 59:008—pg.171: (Some part is due) to the indigent Muhajirs, those who were expelled from their homes and their property, while seeking Grace from God and (His) Good Pleasure, and aiding God and His Apostle: such are indeed the sincere ones:-

· God states the categories of needy people who also deserve a part of the Fai’ ((Some part is due) to the indigent Muhajirs, those who were expelled from their homes and their property).

(140) 59:014—pg.171: They will not fight you (even) together, except in fortified townships, or from behind walls. Strong is their fighting (spirit) amongst themselves: thou wouldst think they were united, but their hearts are divided: that is because they are a people devoid of wisdom.

· This ayah refers to the hypocrites who encouraged the Bani An-Nadir, saying that they would fight with them if they were to go out of Medina (They will not fight you (even) together). Even though one might see them combining forces and think that these forces are harmonious, yet in reality, they are divided severely (thou wouldst think they were united, but their hearts are divided: that is because they are a people devoid of wisdom).

(141) 60:009—pg.173: God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong.

· God forbids the companions of the Prophet from being kind and befriending with the disbelievers who are openly hostile to them, those who fought against them, expelled them and helped to expel them (God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out). God forbids the believers from being their friends and orders them to be their enemy.

(142) 61:004—pg.175: Truly God loves those who fight in His Cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure.

· In this ayah, God stated what He likes, and they were tested in the Battle of Uhud (God loves those who fight in His Cause in battle array).

(143) 61:011—pg.176: That ye believe in God and His Apostle, and that ye strive (your utmost) in the Cause of God, with your property and your persons: That will be best for you, if ye but knew!

(144) 61:013—pg.176: And another (favour will He bestow,) which ye do love, – help from God and a speedy victory. So give the Glad Tidings to the Believers.

· These ayat were revealed in response to a question asked by the companions of the Prophet concerning the best actions with God, so that they might practice them (That ye believe in God and His Apostle, and that ye strive (your utmost) in the Cause of God, with your property and your persons: That will be best for you). If they fight in God’s cause (Jihad) and support His religion, He will grant them victory (And another (favour will He bestow,) which ye do love, – help from God and a speedy victory).

(145) 63:004—pg.177: When thou lookest at them, their exteriors please thee; and when they speak, thou listenest to their words. They are as (worthless as hollow) pieces of timber propped up, (unable to stand on their own). They think that every cry is against them. They are the enemies; so beware of them. The curse of God be on them! How are they deluded (away from the Truth)!

· God states that the hypocrites pretended to be Muslims when they went to the Prophet. In reality, they were not Muslims, but rather the opposite (When thou lookest at them, their exteriors please thee; and when they speak, thou listenest to their words. They are as (worthless as hollow) pieces of timber propped up, (unable to stand on their own).

(146) 64:014—pg.179: O ye who believe! Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to yourselves: so beware of them! But if ye forgive and overlook, and cover up (their faults), verily God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

· God states that some wives and children are enemies to their husbands and fathers, in that they might be busied with them rather than with performing the good deeds (Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to yourselves: so beware of them!).

(147) 66:009—pg.180: O Prophet! Strive hard against the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell, – an evil refuge (indeed).

· God orders His Messenger to perform Jihad against the disbelievers and hypocrites, the former with weapons and armaments and the later by establishing God’s legislated penal code (O Prophet! Strive hard against the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them).

(148) 73:020—pg.180: Thy Lord doth know that thou standest forth (to prayer) nigh two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so doth a party of those with thee. But God doth appoint night and day in due measure He knoweth that ye are unable to keep count thereof. So He hath turned to you (in mercy): read ye, therefore, of the Qur’an as much as may be easy for you. He knoweth that there may be (some) among you in ill-health; others travelling through the land, seeking of God’s bounty; yet others fighting in God’s Cause, read ye, therefore, as much of the Qur’an as may be easy (for you) and establish regular Prayer and give regular Charity; and loan to God a Beautiful Loan. And whatever good ye send forth for your souls ye shall find it in God’s Presence, – yea, better and greater, in Reward and seek ye the Grace of God: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

· God knows that there will be people of this nation who will have excuses for not praying the (voluntary) night prayer (Thy Lord doth know that thou standest forth (to prayer) nigh two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so doth a party of those with thee). They are those who are ill and therefore they are not able to perform it, and those who are traveling in the land seeking the bounty of God in business and trade, and others who will be busy with that which is more important to them (He knoweth that there may be (some) among you in ill-health; others travelling through the land, seeking of God’s bounty). An example of this is going on expeditions to fight in the way of God (Jihad) (yet others fighting in God’s Cause). This ayah, rather, this entire surah was revealed in Mecca even though fighting was not legislated until after it was revealed. Thus, it is among the greatest of the signs of prophethood, because it informs about unseen matters of the future.

(149) 76:008—pg.183: And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive,-

· It has been said that this means the love of God, the Most High. In their view the pronoun refers to God. However, the most apparent meaning is that the pronoun refers to the food. This would mean, they give food while they themselves love it and desire it (And they feed, for the love of God). This ayah is also refers to the day of Badr, when the Messenger of God commanded his Companions to treat the captives respectfully. They (the Companions) would give them preference over themselves when eating their meals (And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive).